- the enzymes that mark the enhancer region or the end of a gene.
|Adenine - a nitrogenous
base that is found in DNA and RNA. Its complimentary base is Thymine.
|Allele - A gene on
a chromosome that codes for the same characteristic as a gene on the other
chromosome in the pair. Each allele can be dominant or recessive.
They are usually denoted by a capital letter (T, R, C - dominant) or a
lower case letter (t, r, c - recessive).
|Amino Acids -
the subunits of a polypeptide chain or a protein. Many amino acids
bonded together form a polypeptide chain which becomes a protein.
a group of three bases in tRNA that are complimentary to a certain codon.
- reproduction that requires only one organism
- the enzymes that mark the promoter region or the beginning of a gene.
- the protein that runs along the DNA strand halfway between the promoter
and enhancer regions of a gene. Once at this halfway spot, it bends
the DNA strand so that the basal factors and the activator proteins are
touching; this stimulates transcription.
|Cells - the basic
units of life. There are organisms that range from one cell to trillions
the center point where a chromosome pair bonds together.
a long strand of DNA bundled together. Found in the nucleus or nuclear
|Codon - a group of
three bases in an RNA strand. Each codon stands for a certain amino
|Cytoplasm - liquid
in the cell that holds all of the parts of the cell.
|Cytosine - a nitrogenous
base that is found in DNA and RNA. Its complimentary base is Guanine.
Acid - the nucleic acid containing deoxyribose as its sugar.
DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid.
- the sugar that deoxyribonucleic acid is made with.
- Specialized; having a function
- a cross of an organism dealing with two characteristics.
|DNA - Deoxyribonucleic
Acid - the material that codes for amino acids which form proteins, which
in turn carry out functions of the cell.
- the enzyme that unwinds the DNA strand.
|DNA Ligase - the
enzyme that bonds the Okazaki fragments together.
- the enzyme that bonds nucleotides to the DNA strand during replication.
It does its work after DNA helicase begins working.
|Egg Cell - Female
reproductive cell containing half the DNA required to create a complete
|Embryo - An animal
early in its development; different body parts can be seen, but are not
all present or fully formed.
- the region of the DNA strand that is the end of a gene.
cell with a nucleus. (Root - true cell)
|Gamete - Generic
term for an egg or a sperm cell
|Genes - sections of
the DNA strand that code for certain characteristics.
|Genome - The complete
set of DNA contained in an organism's cell
|Genotype - the
gene type of an organism; the alleles of a certain characteristic:
TT, Tt, tt.
|Guanine - a nitrogenous
base that is found in DNA and RNA. Its complimentary base is Cytosine.
- if an organism's genotype is heterozygous it has one dominant gene and
one recessive gene. The genotype would be Tt.
if an organism's genotype is homozygous it has on both chromosomes, either
the dominant or the recessive genes for a certain characteristic.
So, if the pea plants has a homozygous dominant genotype, it has two dominant
genes - TT. If the pea plant has a homozygous recessive genotype,
it has two recessive genes - tt.
|Introns - in RNA,
the sections of the strand that are cut out because it is uneeded; in DNA,
A segment with an unknown purpose - accounts for 95% of the cell's DNA
|Junk DNA - uneeded
DNA that is does not help code for anything.
|Karyotype - picture
of all the chromosomes in the cell lined up in their pairs.
|Mitosis - when cells
divide to make two daughter cells from the original mother cell.
DNA - DNA found in the cellular organelles called mitochondria;
identical to mother's mitochondrial DNA
- a cross of an organism dealing with only one characteristic.
|Morology - the study of foolish and nonsensical
|Mutation - a change
of bases in the DNA strand that can cause a disease or abnormalty to the
- the chemical compound found naturally in cells that is responsible for
heredity. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids.
a nucleotide is the basic unit of a polynucleotide chain. It is made
up of a phosphate, a nitrogenous bases, uracil, adenine, guanine, or cytosine,
and a sugar that is either dexoyribose or ribose.
|Nucleus - area inside
of Eukaryotic cells that holds the chromosomes in the cell.
- the fragments of a DNA strand that are not bonded with each other.
|Organism - critter;
generic term for anything alive, whether it is plant, animal, or bacteria.
|Oviduct - place
where early mammal embryos grow in nature
|Phenotype - the
way an organisms genes express themselves; either short, tall, green, etc
|Plasmid - ring of
"extra" DNA found outside the nucleus in many single-celled organisms
Chain - a polynucleotide chain is made up of many nucleotides and
forms nucleic acids. DNA strands are long polynucleotide chains.
- cell without a nucleus, has a nuclear area.
- the region of the DNA strand that is the beginning of a gene.
|Proteins - material
that carries out the functions of the cell. Also forms the structure
of certain cells.
|Purine - adenine
and guanine are both purines. It is a larger structure than pyrimidines.
thymine and cytosine are both pyrimidines. It is a smaller structure
- a gene that requires a second identical gene in order to be expressed
- the process of duplicating or making a copy of DNA during cell division.
This results in two DNA strands.
|Ribose - the sugar
that ribonucleic acid is made with.
Enzyme - an enzyme that cuts DNA at specific base pair sequences;
this sequence varies from restriction enzyme to restriction enzyme
|Replicate - make
identical copies of
|Ribosome - a component
of the cell that read mRNA and bonds an amino acid chain together.
|RNA - ribonucleic acid
- the chemical that is made with ribose and the bases of uracil, cytosine,
adenine, or guanine. It is made as a copy of the of DNA during transcription
the process of protein synthesis
- the enzyme that unzips DNA and make a complimentary RNA strand.
- breeding an organism that has a desirable trait with another so that
the desirable trait is passed to the next generation.
- the enzyme that cuts introns out of the mRNA strand.
- Female in whom an embryo is artificially implanted to be carried to term
|Thymine - A nitrogenous
base that is found in DNA but not in RNA. Its complimentary base
is Adenine. Uracil replaces it in RNA.
- the process of the cell copying DNA to RNA and reading the RNA to make
a nitrogenous base only found in RNA, not DNA. It takes the place
of thymine in RNA.
|Virulent - harmful
or deadly. A virulent pneumonia is deadly and harmful.