THE PROPABILITY WAVE AND THE INDETERMINACY PRINCIPLE
The atomic nucleus with electrons circulating around it on some orbits which they can change absorbing or emitting energy - what a strange idea of atom. How to imagine such structure? Why is it so? The idea of atom created by Rutherford and Bohr explained many of the observed phenomenon connected with atoms but wasn't perfect.
What more, thanks to
the model suggested by Schrodinger the
radiuses of orbits and the placement of the spectral lines of many
other than hydrogen chemical elements can be calculated.
We can predict the situation of the electron only with the determined probability. For example in the atom of hydrogen the probability of finding an electron in the ground state in a sphere of a radius equal 10-8 cm around the nucleus is equal about 80%.
So the phenomena described before can be now easily explained. A part of the wave goes through the barrier and thanks to it there is some probability of finding an electron behind the barrier. So the electron can with some probability go through the barrier of the potential. For example shooting the net of a hundred electrons we get eighty five of them reflected and fifteen go through.
Summarising Born noticed when measured the electrons behave like they were particles and in other cases their probability distribution in space is in accordance with the probability coming from the Schrodinger equation. So the 2is the description of the probable positions of the electron.
The laws of the probability are also used for describing the electrons changing the energy states. If the electron placed on a given orbit can "jump" on more than one lower orbit then there is some probability of taking each of them.
Thanks to the Schroedinger equation and the Born's interpretation of it the behaviour of atoms of different chemical elements and their bounding into chemical compounds was explained. Such great systems for researching microstructures like the electron and the proton microscopes where constructed.
In 1927 Paul Dirac developed a formula very well describing the electron wave. The equation explained and predicted many facts connected with the electron. The only problem was that there were two solutions. That was the suggestion of the subsistence of the particle identical to the electron but of a positive charge.
The particle was discovered in 1932 by Carl Anderson. It was called the positron and was the first discovered antiparticle (the particle of anti-matter).
Also in 1927 Heisenberg gave indeterminacy principle. It says that there are pairs of the quantities that appear in atomic physics which can not be known simultaneously with a big accuracy. For example it is not possible to defined exactly both the position and the momentum of electron at the same time. The indeterminacy quotient of those two quantities is has got to be equal or bigger than the Planck constant (h):
And so knowing more about the one quantity we know less about the other because their indeterminacy is inverse proportional. If for example we defined very precisely the position of the electron than it's momentum will be defined very inexact.
The similar is between energy and time characteristic for a given incident or state. In this case we get:
The Heisenberg relation release on a fact that every measurement influances the meseaured system. Let's imagine the electron. To determinate its position firstly we have to "see" it. That is why we have to reflect a beam of light, that is a beam of photons, on it. Doing that we get the electrons position. But each reflected photon changes the momentum of the electron so it is not possible to measure the position and the momentum of the particle at the same time.
The Heisenberg relations is the ultimate limit of the measurement restricting our knowledge. It is insuperable and no even the most precisely, modern measuring instruments can change the fact.
SUBSEQUENT RESEARCH OF ELECTRON | ATTEMPTS OF ELEMENTARY CHARGE EVALUATION | DISCOVERY AND RESEARCH OF X RAYS | RADIOACTIVITY | KELVIN'S-THOMSON'S ATOMIC MODEL | QUANTYM THEORY - THE NEW GREAT IDEA | BOHR'S ATOMIC STRUCTURE MODEL | IMPROVED BOHR'S THEORY | ELECTON BEING A WAVE | PARTICLE ACCELERATORS | CHERNOBYL | CHERNOBYL TOWARDS POLAND | NUCLEAR PLANTS AND ENVIRONMENT | PROPABILITY WAVE AND INDETERMINACY PRINCIPLE | ATOMIC NUCLEUS | MORE ABOUT QUANTUM NUMBERS | NEUTRINOS | NEUTRONS | POSITRONS | NUCLEAR REACTIONS | NUCLEAR REACTOR | FURTHER RESEARCH OF RADIOACTIVITY | DETAILED RELATIVITY THEORY | TOKAMAK | FISSON AND NUCLEAR SYNTESIS | ATOMIC BOMB