Ernest Rutherford was
born on the 30th of August 1871 in Brightwater near Nelon city in
New Zeland. He studied on the University of New Zeland, and then he
got a scholarship in Cambridge. He worked there under the
management of Sir Joseph John
Thomson, in the Cavendish Laboratory. In Cambridge Rutheford
conferred a doctor's degree. He was appointed to a professorship on
the University of Montreal. He started to search on radioactive discovering alpha particle and beta particle. He discovered in 1899
that particles of alpha were a flux of helium atoms but devoided of
electrons. And beta particles are electrons. In 1903 he published
with Frederic Soddy a work
(Frederick Soddy was a
British scientist searching on radioactive; Nobel price 1921). In the
work there was a formula describing radioactivity dependence on time and the
proof that quantity of radioactive disintegration in the sample
is proportional to the quantity of atoms of radioactive substance.
Rutheford discovered that proportionality constant for different
elements was rendered by some other constant which he called
radioactivity constant (decay
constant). It determined radioactivity disintegration rate. A
year later he ascertained that decay constant inverse multiplied by
some number defined a half-life period-time required to reduce
element's radioactivity in half.
He proved that searching polonium radium for which the half-life
period was much shorter than for uranium.
nitrogen nucleus + alfa particles = proton + oxygen nucleus
During the First World War Rutheford found the method of detecting German submarines by radio monitoring.
In 1908 Rutheford received a Noble price. In 1914 he was ennobled; then he became a baron. He died on the 19th of October 1937.