THE 19th CENTURY
The 19th century was
mostly the time of researching on electricity and magnetism. These
were the leading sciences of the century. Many decisive inventions
based on the achievement of that sciences. The researches on the
nature of electricity and magnetism influenced the better
acquaintance of atomic occurrences and the world of microelements.
The scientists elaborated many of the laws of world's
microstructure constitution. At last in the 90ths of the 19th
the first elementary molecule, was discovered.
|Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen lived in the years 1845-1923.
Among the other his researches he studied the occurrence of
cathode radiation. That
occurred while the electric current flowed through the tube filled
with rare gas. The tube started to illuminate to the negative
electrode. Invisible rays coming out of the cathode had to be
responsible for that. He observed their interaction with metals. He
noticed that fluorescent crystals, placed near the set of
instruments used in the experiment, started to illuminate.
That happened even when he conducted the experiment in absolutely
darkness. That occurrence he tried to explain by the subsistence of
unknown mysterious, new kind of radiation - X-radiation. Roentgen discovered that the
radiation was absorbed by different materials in different degree.
That let him make the first photo of alive person hand
|William Ramsay lived in the years 1852-1916. In 1894 he
and John Rayleigh both discovered a new
element which Ramsay called argon. It didn't
compound with any other elements and it didn't fit in periodic
table. The table had to be enlarged by one column. A year later
Ramsay discovered another element of that group - helium and in 1898 he isolated all noble gasses occurring
in the air; that is: argon, neon, helium, krypton,
xenon and in 1910 - radon.
Apart from these researches he tried to interpretate Brownian
movement explaining them as collisions of observed bodies and
invisible particles of medium.
The scientist of the
19th century explained many occurrences connected with
electromagnetism and the kinetic theory of gases. X-raying was discovered. There
appeared some new equipment based on electromagnetic occurrences.
Soon they were used in practise in people's life and as the
experimental equipment. At the and of the 19th century the first elementary molecule was finally
discovered - the electron.