Giuseppe Garibaldi was born it Nice on 4 July, His father was a fisherman, he gave his boy a education, with the object of making hem a priest.
Giusseppe was determined upon becoming a sailor, and rising rapidly in the merchant-service.
He had volunteered for the Sardinian navy with the object of gaining recruits for the cause. Garibaldi escaped to Marseilles and afterwards to South America, where he offered his services to the province of Rio Grande, which was in rebellion against the emperor of Brazil. He distinguished himself as a guerrilla warrior and privateer, and was taken prisoner and suspended for two hours by the wrists for an attempted escape.
He eloped and soon married the beautiful creole Anita Riveira de Siloba, the companion of his earlier campaigns and the mother of his children Menotti, Ricciotti an Teresa.
In a war with Rosan, the tyran of Buenos Aires, he struggle won fresh renown, by water as naval commander in a two days engagement, and on land as organiser and commander of the Italian legion, especially on 8 Feb. and 20 May 1846, when he beat off the forces of the enemy at Salto San Antonio.
In 1846 the reforming pope Pius IX ascended the throne of St Peter.
After the collapse of the Sardinian army, Garibaldi performed some notable feats at the head of a body of volunteers against the Austrians on the Swiss frontier, and then wandered about Italy until he reached Ravenna.
In 1849 Pius IX, who had retracted his liberal concessions, fled the city.
Garibaldi retreated pursued by the Austrians, to the Adriatic where Anita, worn out by suffering, died and was buried in the sand.
Garibaldi was at length arrested by the orders of the Sardinian government at Chiavari and requested to leave Italy.
He returned to Italy in 1854 and had settled down as a farmer on the island of Caprera, when in 1859 the outbreak of the was of Italian liberation called him to arms once more.
He was summoned to Turin by Cavour in February and at once placed his sword at the disposal of Victor Emanuel.
Victor Emanuel was born 1820. On March 1861 he became the first king of the kingdom Italy.
Garibaldi and his chasseurs of the Alps rendered valuable service to the liberators, especially at Varese in the Valtellina. After the peace of Villafranca, Garibaldi with the permission of Victor Emmanuel, went into central Italy as second in command and helped to finish the annexation of the territories to Sardinia, but was not allowed to march on Rome as he desired.
In 1862 he embarked on a expedition against the capital. The papal rule at Rome was under French protection so that the royal government felt compelled to stop Garibaldis exploit. This they did by sending troops against him, by whom Garibaldi was taken prisoner at Aspromonte. Badly wounded in the foot, Garibaldi was detained for two months as prisoner at la Spezia and was then allowed to return to Caprera.
In the war of 1866, in which Italy was the ally of Prussia against Austria, he once more commanded a large group in Tirol but, though his sons Menotti an Ricciotti proved worthy of their father, the campaign was not a very distinguished one.
Venice was now ceded to Italy but Rome still remained unredeemed and, untaught by his previous adventures, Garibaldi in the following years made his last attempt. He was arrested on 22 Sept. by the Italian government, whose hands were tied by a convention with France in 1864, he escaped from Caprera in a boat, and placing himself at the head of the volunteers, defeated the papal troops on 25 Oct. at Monterontondo.
On 3Nov. he was routed at Mentana.
Once more he was allowed to retire at Caprera. In 1870 he published two novels. In 1872 he published a third romance.
During the remainder of his life he remained a helpless invalid at Caprera, except on occasions like that in 1874 when he took his seat in the camber of deputies at Rome.
During the last years of his life manifestoes poured from his pen, in with professions of devotion to the Sardinian dynasty alternated with the wildest republicanism, and his simplicity was easily persuaded to endorse any document containing the common placer of cosmopolitanism.
On 2 june 1882 he died and was sincerely mourned, not only by his fellow-countrymen, but by the lovers of liberty throughout Europe.