Since there are all different types of data that people want to use, there are many different types of software. Some very common ones are word processors, Internet browsers, and games, spread sheets, e-mail, graphic art, work group, money management, client management, databases, and productivity tools.
A word processor is a program that is used for the manipulation of text. Usually you can also add pictures, change color, backgrounds, tables, and other simple graphic components. Sometimes word processors will come in a "suite," or special package offering, that also has a spread sheet, e-mail, and a personal database program.
The Internet browser is the program that you use to look at web pages on the Internet. Some also include an email program and the ability to make one's own web pages without writing all of the code from scratch.
I am sure you know what a game is. But let's think about it a little more deeply. What do you do when you use a game? You get a character with a laser beam, walk through a cave, come to a monster, and decide to "blast" him. All those scenes and actions required graphics, your input, the program's output, plus all the those cool sounds. The game is constantly making the computer reevaluate what has happened and what is going to happen next; just like in your life, there is an action and then a reaction.
A spreadsheet is a special kind of paper that an accountant uses to keep track of money other sets of numbers. The program does the same thing but it also has the ability to do some of the math for you, to manipulate charts, to create graphs, and to add the data into some databases.
A e-mail (electronic mail) program is used to send and to receive electronic correspondence. E-mail can be messages sent with in a network or over the Internet.
Graphic art applications serve a wide range af users, from small children drawing play figures all the way to movie making professionals. There are many different levels of complexity in graphic art programs. Some can be very expensive and allow you to render photographs or drawing as if you were doing them by hand or with a camera. You can then use special added applications to manipulate your custom art. many are incredibly complex.
A work group application is used over a corporate network to share data in more useful ways then just transferring files. These types of programs are often called "groupware" applications. You can usually share calendars, access to databases, client directories and have many users editing a document at the same time.
Money management programs are for both the home and office. You can use programs to work directly with your bank account and your credit cards and keep everything balanced. More advanced programs for business also can do pay roll and payment tracking.
Databases can be tables for client directories, or they may be more advanced. Databases are used everywhere. They are even used to manage lists of drives in the operating system.
Productivity tools are programs that make a task easier and more direct. They usually come with calendars and client management programs.
Client management programs allow users to keep information about their clients and what they have done. Different industries have there own versions of these software programs.
These are most of the basic types of computer software.