1960 - DEC PDP-1
The PDP-1 sold for $120,000. MIT wrote the first video game, Space War! for it. A total of 50 were built. Each had a cathode ray tube graphic display.
The 1401 mainframe, the first in the 1400 series, used transistors instead of vacuum tubes, and had a magnetic core memory. More than 12,000 of the 1401 computers were sold.
The LINC (Laboratory Instrumentation Computer) was made for laboratory data processing. In the picture, the LINC's designer, Wesley Clark of Lincoln Laboratories, stands with the LINC, and its processor on the left.
Virtual memory allowed a computer to use its storage capacity to run outside software and switch rapidly between any programs opened simontaneously. It came about at the University of Manchester from a group led by Tom Kilburn.
IBM's System/360, a family of computers with a great variety of combinations of speed, memory, and power. All the computers in the system were compatible, meaning they could work together, and exchange software or hardware. This computer family was a good investment for IBM. Within two years, they were getting 1,000 orders each month. month within two years.
CDC's 6600 supercomputer was designed by Seymour Cray. It could perform up to 3 million instructions per second. The 6600 was considered the fasted computer in the world until 1968, when the CDC 7600 was completed. The CDC 6600 was designed with 10 "peripheral processors," or small computers that passed data to a large central processing unit. This design was responsible for the speed of the computer.
The PDP-8, made by Digital Equipment Corp., was considered the first commercially successful minicomputer. It's price was $18,000. This reasonable price, along with speed, and small size, is what made it successful. Costumers included manufacturing plants, small businesses, and scientific laboratories.
The ILLIAC IV was built by the University of Illinois, at the request of the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The ILLIAC IV was not operational until 1972 contracted the University of Illinois to build a large-scale array, parallel processing computer. This computer can complete 200 million instructions per second. This picture shows one of the ILLIAC's 13 Burroughs disks, the debugging computer, the central unit, and the processing unit cabinet with a processing element.
Hewlett-Packard's HP 2115 was a computer built to make computations with the power previously found only in larger computers. It supported many languages,
including BASIC, ALGOL, and FORTRAN.
The Nova minicomputer was created by Data General Corp., a group started by engineers that had left Digital Equipment Corp. The Nova, had 32 kilobytes of memory, and sold for $8,000. In the picture is Ed deCastro, president of the then new company, sitting with a Nova. This computer's simple architecture is the inspiration of the Apple I board, in 1976.
The Apollo Guidance Computer orbited the Earth on Apollo 7. The next year, it steered Apollo 11 to the lunar surface.
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