Below is the simplest of Turing Machines, one that simply adds one to a number. A number is represented as a series of 0s and 1s, not in binary though! It is represented in a continually stream of 1s with padding zeros around them. For example, 3 is 0011100, 8 is 001111111100. The padding zeros just make it easier for the program to add, because if there is no cell to write to, it won't create one. All we need to create f(x) = x+1 are two states, arbitarily called "State A" and "State B". These are indicated below with checkboxes, the one checked is the state the machine is in.
These are the rules for the machine:
If the internal state is "State A", and it reads a 0, output a zero.
If the internal state is "State A", and it reads a 1, change to "State B", and write a one.
If the internal state is "State B", and it reads a 0, change to "State A", and write a one.
If the internal state is "State B", and it reads a 1, output a one.
To operate the machine, press Next to advance the tape once. You can enter in your own number if you like, "1" is already in the machine, and it will recycle the output once the input tape is empty.