The Boreal Owl is known as Tengmalm's Owl in Europe and was once named Richardson's Owl in North America. The Boreal Owl is a small owl, 8-12 inches long. In appearance, it is earless and mostly brown. The upperparts are brown spotted with white, with more white spots on the rump and tail. The wing has large spots of white also; the undersides are white streaked with grey-brown vertically down the body. The facial disk is edged with black and streaked with brown from the eyes. Immatures are dark brown without spots above, and light brown below, becoming more off-white near the tail.
The Boreal Owl lives in Arctic regions during the breeding season- mostly northern Canada and Alaska during the season, then migrating southward to central and southern Canada as well as the northern United States. It prefers dense coniferous forests.
3-11 eggs are laid in tree cavities without lining. The female incubates the eggs for 26-27 days while the male hunts for food. The nestlings will fly in 4-5 weeks.
The Boreal Owl eats mainly insects, birds and small mammals such as rodents. Voles make up a primary part of their diet; they will sometimes move with the vole population.