|First, people began writing using their fingers, in the sand and on cave walls. Then somebody started to use reeds. The reedss were sharpened, and because they were hollow, ink could be through the length of the reed, acting as a primitive pen. About 600 BC they started to use feather, mainly from geese, swans and turkeys. This kind of pen was used till the19th century.|
|Ancient people in Europe or Africa didn't write on paper, but on papyrus and parchment. Papyrus is a writing material made of fibre from a papyrus plant, that was grown by the banks of the Nile River. It was produced from 3000 BC to 1100 AD. Parchment is made of specially prepared skin (from calf, sheep, goat). It was known in the antiquity, and used through Middle Ages. The oldest one in existance is from about 1500 years BC. In 12th century AD, people started to use paper.|
Apart from pens, people also used pencils. They were made
lead rods. The lead rod was introduced between
wood in 12th century. Today we don't use lead,
but graphite (it's called black-lead). Color
pecils are made of clay colored with metal oxides.
The progress of printing in 17th century increased demand for paper. In next centuries following, it was realized that besides paper, people also needed the pens. Some people started to think about improving them. In 1828, Thomas Sheldon started to produce nibs and fountain-pens. In 1884 Lewis Waterman improved them. In them, the ink would act more fluidly and glide out of the nib. The first ball-point pen was invented by H. Loud in 1888. Laszlo Biro in 1944 was first man who had successfully made a ball-pointer.
|Now, paper is made mainly of wood, more exactly, pulp. It is rinsed and filtered. The next process is to dry it and roll it on bales. In a paper-mill a kier makes it smaller and mixes it with water. Into this part the waste paper might be added.|
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