Spectroscopy is a tool that enables astronomers to study the chemical makeup and temperature of different celestial bodies.
Significant achievements have been made regarding the spectroscope by its inventor, Sir Isaac Newton, by Josef Fraunhofer, a German optician, and by Gustav Kirchhoff.
A spectroscope operates by "breaking down "white light" from a celestial body into an extremely detained spectrum." Fraunhofer (1787-1826) found that there were dark lines that cross the spectrum created by the spectroscope of light that was eminating from the Sun. Kirchhoff on the other hand (1824-1887) added to Fraunhofer's discovery by explaining the phenomenon. Kirchhoff realized that the black lines that Fraunhofer had found are produced by chemicals in the outer layers with the lower temperatures
which end up absorbing light rays. By using Newton's invention of spectroscope, scientists and astronomers have been able to determine the chemical makeup of the Sun's atmosphere