The Soviets accused the United States of practicing atomic diplomacy. They believed that the U.S. was maintaining a nuclear monopoly to scare the Soviets into diplomatic concession. Secretary of State Byrnes threatened Soviet Commissar of Foreign Affairs Moltov that if the Soviets did not agree to a piece of diplomacy, he was going to use the atomic bomb. Secretary of War Stimson condemned this 1945 threat.
James F. Byrnes
Byrnes was the Secretary of State that threatened to use the atomic bomb on the Soviets.
This American proposal provided for American abandonment of its monopoly after an international agency controlled the worlds fissible materials. The Soviets rejected the plan as they would be unable to build nuclear weapons and the U.S. would still have a monopoly.
Iran crisis, 1946
The U.S. asked Iran for oil concessions. The Soviets responded by failing to withdraw troops from Iran by March 1946, the date agreed for troop withdrawal. The U.S. accused the Soviets of trying to take over Iran; the Soviets pointed to American military advisors in Iran and British oil interests in Iran. The UN only investigated Soviet actions, causing a Soviet boycott. In April, the U.S. traded an oil concession for removal of Soviet troops. Then, in 1947, the U.S. persuaded the Iranians to go back on their promise of Soviet-oil concession.
Churchills Iron Curtain Speech
On March 5, 1946, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill made this speech with President Trumans support. Churchill warned that the Soviets were cutting off Eastern European countries and an Anglo-American partnership to resist the Soviets was necessary.
The Truman Doctrine
Truman said, It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. Because of this statement, the British supported the Greek regime turned to the U.S. for help against the rebel National Liberation Front.
The Marshall Plan
On June 5, 1947, Secretary of State Marshall announced this plan in which the U.S. would fund a European recovery program. From 1948 to 1951, the U.S. sent $12.4 billion to Western Europe to be used to buy American goods. This type of policy was known as economic containment of communism.
In June 1948, the Soviets cut off Western access to Berlin. In response, Truman ordered a massive airlift of food, fuel, and other supplies to Berlin in an action known as Operation Vittles. On May 12, 1949, the Soviets lifted their blockade. The U.S., France, and Great Britain created the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the Soviets created the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
National Security Act, 1947
This July Act created the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, and the CIA (for spying and information gathering).
On April 4, 1949, the U.S., Canada, and Western Europe founded the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This was a military shield added to the economic shield of the Marshall Plan. NATO was passed in the Senate in July, 82 to 13. The Senate then approved $1.5 billion in the National Defense Assistance Act.
George Kennan; Containment
Kennan, the director of the State Departments policy-planning staff wrote the containment doctrine in the magazine Foreign Affairs in July 1947. He wanted to confront the Soviets at every place they showed signs of encroaching upon.
Henry Wallaces firing
Secretary of Commerce Wallace blasted Trumans get-tough policy which he said substituted atomic and economic coercion for diplomacy. Truman fired Wallace and privately called him a communist.
Lippmans criticism of containment
Journalist Walter Lippmann called containment a strategic monstrosity in The Cold War (1947). Lippman wrote that resources would soon be drained if American leaders believed that every place on earth was of strategic importance.
This report predicted continued Communist tensions and a polarized war power. More military funds were asked for to counter Soviet threats.
Fair Employment Act of 1946
The Employment Act of 1946 announced that the federal government would use all means including deficit spending to achieve maximum employment, production, and purchasing power. The Council of Economic Advisors was established to assist the President.
Taft-Hartley Act: purpose and provisions
This 1947 Act was passed over President Trumans veto. This bill was similar to the 1935 Wagner Act. It prohibited a closed shop in which only union members could be hired. States could also ban closed shops with right-to-work laws. Workers were still allowed to organize, elect a union to represent them, bargain collectively, and strike. Union contributions to political funds in federal elections were banned, union leaders had to sign non-Communist affidavits, and eighty-day cooling off periods between strikes were mandated. Trumans veto helped him regain labors support while the 80th Congress was hurt.
To Secure These Rights
This was the Presidents Committee on Civil Rights report. The Committee recommended federal anti-lynching, anti-segregation, and anti-poll tax laws. Laws guaranteeing voting rights and equal employment opportunity, and the establishment of a permanent commission on civil rights division within the Department of Justice were recommended.
Supreme Court decisions on Civil Rights
Smith v. Allwright (1944)
Outlawed white-only primaries held by Southern Democrats
Morgan v. Virginia (1946)
Segregation in interstate bus transportation is unconstitutional
Shelley v. Kraemer (1948)
Racially restricted covenant violated equal protection clause of 14th Amendment
District of Columbia v. John R. Thompson Co. (Thompson Restaurant Case)
Causes desegregation of restaurants and hotels in the District of Columbia
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
Overturned the separate-but-equal doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson
Election of 1948: candidates and issues
Republicans nominated Governor Thomas Dewey of New York and Governor Earl Warren of California. Democrats renominated Truman when Dwight Eisenhower declined a nomination. Henry Wallace ran as a Progressive, supporting friendship and negotiation with the Soviets and nationalization of oil companies, railroads, and other basic industries. The Dixiecrats nominated Strom Thurmond, Governor of South Carolina (States Rights Democratic Party). They had left when the Democrats adopted a pro-Civil rights stand. Truman traveled the country delivering speeches about the do-nothing 80th Congress. Surprisingly, Truman won 303 to 228 in the electoral vote while winning the popular vote 24.1 million to 21.9 million.
The Dixiecrats; Strom Thurmond
The Dixiecrats were the fourth party during the 1948 election. This was the States Rights Democratic Party. They had broken from the Democratic party when the Democrats adopted a pro-Civil rights stand. Strom Thurmond was nominated for President.
The Fair Deal
When Truman won in 1948, he said, I expect to give every segment of our population a fair deal. This became the name of Trumans presidency. This was a 21 point legislation which included raising the minimum wage from $.65 to $.75, expanding Social Security, and government funding of low income housing and urban renewal.
Trumans Loyalty program
In March 1947, President Truman ordered the investigation of the loyalty of more than 3,000,000 employees of the federal government. By 1950, security risks including alcoholics and homosexuals were being discharged because the government felt that they were susceptible to blackmail. Most of these people were ruined even though they had done nothing wrong.
Alger Hiss case
In 1949, former American Communist spy Whittaker Chambers accusation that former State Department Official Alger Hiss gave him classified documents caused a trial. Hiss denied the charge that he had committed perjury when telling a grand jury that he had never passed classified documents. Hiss had not even seen Chambers since 1936. Truman and Secretary of State Dean Acheson came to Hiss defense, but were attacked. In 1950, Hiss was convicted.
In 1938, the House Un-American Activities Committee was created. It would be used to get rid of New Deal radicals. HUAC found that there was Soviet activity within high places in the federal government. Richard Nixon-led investigations in 1948 were used against Alger Hiss in his trial.
In 1950, Klaus Fuchs was arrested by the British after admitting to passing on secrets of the atomic bomb to the Soviets. Later, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of passing secrets to the Soviets. The Rosenbergs were convicted and executed in June 1953 while still proclaiming their innocence.
McCarran Internal Security Act, 1950
This Act was adopted over President Trumans veto and made it illegal for anyone to contribute to the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship. Members of Communist organizations were required to register with the government and could not hold defense jobs or travel abroad.
Senator Joseph R. McCarthy
Senator McCarthy of Wisconsin was the head of the Communist witch hunt in the late 1940s and 1950s. He manipulated Communist hysteria to his advantage against political foes. In a February 9, 1950 speech, McCarthy in Wheeling, West Virginia, claimed to have a list of 205 Communists that worked in the State Department.
This is a political plan for getting rid of any publicly known person who might be connected with Communism and various unpleasant and unacceptable methods of finding and dealing with such people.
the Smith Act, 1940
This act was also known as the Alien Registration Act and made it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the U.S. government by force or violence or join any organization that advocated it.
the Dennis case
This 1951 case upheld the Smith Act under which 11 communist leader had been convicted and imprisoned.
The Chinese civil war
This was a war between Chiang Kai-sheks Nationalist army and Mao Tse-tung and Zhou Enlais Communists. At the end of WWII, American troops occupied northern China and had flown Nationalist troops to Manchuria. The United States had given $3 billion in aid to Chiangs corrupted and inefficient government. In the fall of 1949, Chiang retreated to Formosa (Taiwan) and Mao was able to set up the Peoples Republic of China.
Chiang Kai-shek; Mao Tse-tung
Chiang Kai-shek was the leader of the Nationalist army during the Chinese Civil War. Mao Tse-tung was the leader of the Communists. Chiang led a corrupted, U.S.-supported government. Mao led a government that advocated redistribution of land and was believed to be Soviet supported. Maos secret overtures to the U.S. in 1945 and 1949 for peace were rebuffed. In 1949, Mao won and set up the Peoples Republic of China.
Korean War: origins of
On June 25, 1950, troops from the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) attacked the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The North Koreans sought reunification by force. President Truman acted quickly because he believed that the Soviets had masterminded the attack. American troops had been withdrawn in 1949 and the Joint Chief of Staffs had declared South Korea non-vital to U.S. security. A January 1950 speech by Secretary of State Acheson had drawn an Asian defense line without including Formosa and South Korea.
MacArthurs dismissal: reasons for
General Douglas MacArthur was fired by President Truman on April 10, 1951 for insubordination. After an embarrassing defeat on November 26, 1950, MacArthur demanded the bombing of China for helping North Korea. In March, MacArthur called for an attack on China and the return of Chiang Kai-shek. He wanted to smash Communism by destroying its Asian base. MacArthur called Trumans actions appeasement.
Election of 1952
Republicans nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower, a war hero with integrity, decency, lack of pretense, and ability to rise from humble beginnings. Senator Richard Nixon of California, an attacker of Communism, was his running mate. The scandal-ridden Democratic Party nominated Adlai Stevenson, the governor of Illinois. Eisenhower promised to end the Korean War while Nixon associated Stevenson with Secretary of State Acheson. Eisenhower won 34 million to 27 million and 442 to 89.
Another name for Manchuria.
The South Koreans and Americans had been pushed back to the Pusan Perimeter. General MacArthur then decided on an amphibious landing at Inchon. Inchon had high tides, narrow approach channels, mud flats, and heavy enemy fortification; therefore, the Joint Chiefs of Staff rejected the idea. However, MacArthur insisted and won out. On September 15, 1950, 18,000 American troops landed and re-captured Seoul. The North Koreans were forced to retreat north of the 38th parallel.
Truman was unpopular when he left office, but now, he is considered one of the U.S.s greatest Presidents. An inexperienced and uneducated man, Truman strengthened Presidential power. He countered the threat of Soviet expansion and created the CIA, National Security Council, Council of Economic Advisors, and the Department of Defense. The loyalty program ruined many lives and failed his objectives for the Korean War. However, Truman made significant domestic reforms with his Fair Deal and helped civil rights.
China White Paper
This was a 1949 government report explaining why the U.S. supported Chiang Kai-shek to stop Communism. Secretary of State Acheson claimed that Communist leaders had given up their heritage and had become subservient to a foreign power (Soviet Union).
Only the President can decide to use nuclear weapons 1940- Minorville School Board v. Gobitus Upheld expelling of children for not saluting the flag 1943- West Virginia School Board v. Barnett Can not expel children for not saluting the flag 1948- Democrats regain control of Congress Many programs were blocked by Conservative Coalition Truman was unknown- from Missouri political machine Trumans priority: convert from wartime economy to peacetime economy successful; kept the nation out of a post-war depression Truman is considered one of the greatest presidents Reduced armed forces 1946-1950s baby boom 1944- G.I. Bill- allows soldiers to go to college and get low interest mortgages Truman had to control inflation People want big pay raises- companies refuse Truman was not popular Allowed workers to get pay raises Many strikes- GM, Steel, Miners, Railroad lead to 1946 dropping of price controls OPA was extended effectiveness crippled by regulation 11 key indices to keep tabs on the economy Truman pressed for Civil Rights many bills did not pass because Truman alienated the Dixiecrats; forced to use executive orders 1947- National Security Act Direct response to Pearl Harbor Presidential Succession Act (replaces 1886) - In 1886, the Secretary of State would have become the Vice President - Now, the Speaker of the House would become Vice President 1951- 22nd Amendment Presidents after Truman could only serve two terms 1947- Legislative Reorganization Act Lobbyists have to register and report expenses Executive Reorganization Act President can make changes- must be approved by Congress (33 changes by Truman- Department of Welfare rejected) Civil Rights 1950 Sweatt v. Painter Black man was rejected from University of Texas law school because of race; one man law school set up was unequitable McLauren v. Oklahoma Board of Regents Black was accepted, but segregated $3 to $6 a year spent on a black childs education while $300 to $600 a year spent on a white childs education 1952- Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (Secretary of Commerce) Sawyer seized company during a strike Workers were allowed to strike Communist Hysteria 1950- February 9- Wheeling, West Virginia- McCarthys speech None of 250 people ever accused, many peoples lives were ruined 5 Causes of McCarthyism 1. History of anti-Communism from WWI 2. Deflation of wartime euphoria 3. Series of psychological events (Loyalty program, Hiss, Rosenbergs, etc.) 4. Political Motivation (of Republicans) 5. Need for a scapegoat Consequences of McCarthyism Democrats tagged for being soft on Communism Organized labor more concerned with being anti-Communist Reputations were ruined Teachers and professors were fired Books were banned State Department lost many Asian experts Climate of fear and suspicion