||Games and Fun Stuff||Feedback||Meeting Forum||
[an error occurred while processing this directive]
Return to the Advanced Level Page.
Ampere's Law is a useful relation that is analogous to Gauss's Law. It is the relation between the tangential component of magnetic field at points on a closed path and the net current through the area bounded by the path. It is formulated in terms of the line integral of B around a closed path:
We are going to divide the path into really tiny segments dl and for each one calculate the scalar product of B and dl. Generally B varies, but the B at the location of the dl is going to be used so it won't be a problem. The circle on the integral sign means it'll be computed on a closed path, where the start and the end are the same point. It is analogous to the Gaussian surface--you do not really need a physical object there.
The simplest conductor we can consider is a long straight one with current I, passing through the center of a circle of radius r in a plane perpendicular to the wire. The field has a magnitude of m0I/2pr at every point in the circle. We derived that earlier, and it is tangent to the circle at each point. So for every point on the circle B|| = B = m0I/2pr. The line integral of B around the circle is:
In other words, the line integral of B is equal to m0 multiplied by the current passing through the area bounded by the circle.
So basically, Ampere's Law says:
Magnetic Field of a SolenoidNow we are going to put our newly found knowledge to use. We are going to play with a solenoid carrying a current I. A segment of that solenoid is displayed on the illustration at right (click on the illustration for a VRML model of the solenoid). The resultant field at any point is the vector sum, as it always is, of all the coils in the wire. If the solenoid is very large compared to its cross-sectional diameter, the internal field near its center is very nearly uniform and parallel to the axis. The external field near the center is very small. We can use Ampere's law to find the internal field. Our path is going to be a very nice rectangle, abcd. cd is going to be so far away that the field contribution is negligible. bc and ad are parallel to the field so the field there is zero. The only side of the path that makes any contribution is ab.
So if n is the number of turns per unit length of the windings, then the number of turns in length l is nl. Each of these turns passes once through the rectangle abcd and carries a current I. The total current through the path is nlI and using Ampere's Law:
Magnetic Field of a ToroidThe illustration at right is a toroid, a solenoid that is looped back on itself (click on the illustration for a VRML model of the toroid). It is wound with a wire carrying current I The three circles around the toroid are the paths used in our analysis using Ampere's law.
|Created by TQ Team 16600:||
Clyde, Chetan, Jim
Melanie Krieger, Chhaya Taralekar