The atomic bomb was invented by two
refugee German scientists in Britain, Professor Rudolph Peierls and Otto Frisch, of
Birmingham University. They designed a "blue-print" for making an atom bomb in
It actually began when the Italian-born
physicist Enrico Fermi, working in the United States, invented an apparatus which produced
the first atomic chain reactions. In 1940 both the Americans and British were researching
the atom bomb and when the United States entered WW2, the British joined the American
"Manhattan Project" and production of the bomb went on ahead in the US.
The first atom bomb has lead to development such as the
hydrogen and nuclear bomb, which are much more powerful than the first atomic bomb.
However because of damages to our environment and atmosphere, programmes for such
development has been limited and treaty are signed between major countries around the
The explosion of an atom bomb consists of an immense
release of energy caused by the chain reaction in which more and more atoms are split. The
reaction begins when on atom of U-235 or plutonium (a radioactive by-product of nuclear
fission) splits under the impact of a single neutron. The atom splits into two fragments
and at the same time releases more neutrons, which then split more atoms, and so on, in a
self-sustaining sequence. The whole process only takes one millionth of a second to
complete, but in order for a chain reaction to occur there has to be a certain quantity of
U-235 of plutonium present.
Life would be very different without this invention. This
invention has both good and bad impact. The bad side of it is that it damages our
environment and atmosphere and what is worse, it's too destructive. But this ensures peace
between the super powers because they know that even a war with conventional weapons could
swiftly escalate into nuclear obliteration.