Neurons are the specialized cells of the nervous system. The neurons are
responsible for the transmission of electrical impulses to and from the central nervous
system. The main structures of the neuron are, the cell body, the axon, and the dentrite.
Each neuron is equipped with hundreds of dentrites, but only one axon. This places an
enormous importance on the axon. The synaptic cleft is also an important feature of
neurons. The synaptic cleft is a region of the neuron. It is the area between neurons.
This region is responsible for the separation of neurons. The neuron is composed of
dentrites, the soma, the axon, and a cell body. The cell body contains the normal
organelles; such as mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. The size of neurons
differs, but neurons usually range from two to five hundred microns in diameter.
then neurons there are a few other cells which are particular to the nervous system. For
example, ganglia are small bodies of cell bodies located within the nervous system.
Ganglion are primarily found in the peripheral nervous system. Tracts are another
formation found within the nervous system. Tracts are bundles of nerve fibers also know as
neuron processes. Tracts primarily run throughout the peripheral nervous system.
the more important features of the neuron, is the Schwann Cell. The Schwann cell is
responsible for three jobs; the enclosing of the axon, the insulation of the axon, and the
protection of the axon. The Schwann Cell accomplishes its responsibility to the axon
through the myelin sheath. The myelin sheath is a process formed by the Schwann Cell,
protecting, insulating, and enclosing the axonal cylinder. Schwann Cells are formed by a
white matter. The white matter of Schwann Cells is actually fatty matter in a liquid
state. The white matter of Schwann Cells encloses and insulates the axonal cylinder. The
thickness of the white matter varies. The white matter of the Schwann cell id the main
component of the myelinal sheath.
The axon is
the most important section of the neuron. The main purpose of the neuron is to allow a
transmission of a message from one cell to another. This transmission would never occur,
had there not be the axon. The axon is the long finger like projection of the neural body,
the cell body of the neuron. The axon is composed of two principal sections; the axonal
ending and the Schwann Cell. The axon is covered by the Myelinal Sheath.
The axonal terminal is the ending of the
axonal process. The axonal terminal is also called the neuropodium. The axonal ending is
characterized by a bulged ending. The purpose of the axonal terminal is to carry the bulk
load of the neurotransmitters. Once the polarized impulse has reached the axonal terminal,
a chemical reaction takes place within the axonal terminal. The purpose of the chemical
reaction is to release the neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters are chemical substances found
within the neuropodium. The purpose of the neurotransmitter is to aid in the transmission
of the nervous impulse. The electrical impulse is not capable in diffusing across the
synapse. Due to a lacking capabilities of the nervous impulse, a large burden is place on
the neurotransmitter. The synapse is the area located between the neurons. Neurons are not
connected or closely packed together, as in other tissues of the body. All communication
between neurons takes place within the synapse. All nerve impulses must travel across the
synaptic gap. The neurotransmitter is the chemical substance which accomplishes the task
of crossing the synaptic gap.
dentrite is another section of the neuron which aids in the nervous transmission. The
dentrite is one of the many cytoplasmic branches of the neural body. The dentrite aids in
transmission by conducting and receiving terminations of neurons. The dentrites are also
responsible for receiving impulses from neurotransmitters. Dentrites are characterized as
stretching out across the synapse. Dentrites are also known as dentrite processes.