Throughout Egyptian history its military underwent changes as the times changed. During the Old Kingdom, a standing army wasn't kept but if there was a war an army would be organized. During the First Intermediate Period, the core of the army consisted of house troops. This core was made up of conscripts (men who were drafted into the army) and was supplemented by troops of an allied kingdom. Mercenaries from Nubia were also used. The same type of army was used during the Middle Kingdom. During the Second Intermediate Period, the core of the army was made up of house troops which were personal troops of the king. These were supplemented by conscripts. During the late periods, the army was basically a Greek mercenary unit.
Another thing that changed throughout Egypt's history is the technology of the military. During the Pre-Dynastic period, the army used spears, cudgels, clubs, throwing sticks, daggers, bows, maces, and shields. During the Old Kingdom, the quiver and the battle axe with a semi-circular head were invented. During the Middle Kingdom, the battle axe with a scalloped axe-head was invented. During the Second Intermediate Period the chariot, composite bow, and battle axe with a narrow axe-head were invented.
Also, during the new kingdom, the scimitar or sickle sword and body armor were invented. However, all through Egyptian history, the battleship stayed unchanged. These were built of bundles of reeds lashed together to form a narrow, sharp-ended hull and coated with pitch. These ships were fitted with a bipod mast and a single, large, square sail. The ships had more that twenty oars on each side with two or more steering oars. Features were added to war galleys to make them better for battle. Elevated decks were added for archers and spear men. Planks were fitted to the gunwales to protect the rowers. Some galleys also had a projecting ram positioned well above the water line, which may have been designed to crash through the gunwale of an enemy or to ride up on deck.
The army was organized differently throughout time. Starting from the Old Kingdom and lasting until the New Kingdom, the main fighting units of the Egyptian army were organized into battalions. During the New Kingdom, they were organized into divisions named after principal gods.