anchor: A portion of HTML code that identifies a specific document
or a position (destination) inside a specific document. See
applet: A piece of computer software that requires an application
with or within which to operate.
application: Computer software that can run under its own ability.
Can be nearly any size.
bookmark: A hyperlink name and URL that the user saves for future
use in a bookmark list.
browser: Software that displays Web pages and uses hyperlinks to
naviage the Web.
cache: A temporary storage place for data, normally on a client
(user's) system. The computer will store the data, so that it does not
have to request new information. This is designed to cut down on the
amount of information needed to be transfered over the connection.
cascading style sheets (CSS): A layout and display system for Web
pages, where the user can specify fonts and sizes, layouts, colors, and
other viewing and printing parameters in one document. All other
documents do not have to have the bgcolor, text, link, vlink, etc.
attributes in the <body> tag. The documents call the cascading style
sheet file, and the page(s) that call the css file take the properties set
in the css file.
CGI: See common gateway interface
client: Generally the user, or person that's going to view a web
client-side: Applications, activities, or events that take place on
the client computer, such as image maps or applets.
common gateway interface (CGI): A programming interface that
recieves data from the user and acts on it. CGI programs exist on the
server. CGI programs can return data to the user.
computer: A man-made machine designed to make life easier and help
to finish tasks faster. The computer ended up being another appliance in
the human life that just causes more problems than good.
cookie (1): Text stored in a browser that the server can
retrieve. Cookies might contain information about the user: encoded
passwords, user identification, etc.
cookie (2): A man-made confection with sugar, flour and baking
soda. Can contain chocolate chips, peanut butter, and/or nuts.
DNS: See Domain Name Service
domain name: A name for a business, government agency or
organization expressed in wordlike form. There are domains for countries
and six major organization domain types (.com, .edu, .org, .gov, .mil, and
.net) When combined with a server name, they are translated by domain
name services into a numeric IP address called the "dotted quad" (such as
Domain Name Service (DNS): A computer that holds a cross-reference
of domain names to their respective IP addresses ("dotted quad").
embedded object: An object, such as an application, audio file, or
illustration, that is included as part of a document.
entity: A character that has meaning to HTML (like <) or that
cannot be typed on the keyboard (like á, © and þ).
Displayed by typing an ampersand (&) and a string of letters or the
numbersign (#) and a certain number. Go to this
page to learn more.
file transfer protocol (ftp): A protocol that involves remote login
to a computer to exchange files over a TCP/IP connection. FTP usually
requires a username and password, but can be used anonymously, depending
on the computer being connected to.
firewall: software that is designed to prevent unauthorized
users from entering an internal network. Used to protect sensitive data.
form: Part of HTML that allows Web authors to put input fields on
their pages, allowing feedback from the users.
frames (1): An extension to HTML that allos a sort of simultaneous
frames (2): A piece of material that surrounds a painting, picture
or poster. Used to accentuate art. Traditionally made of wood, is now
made of various materials.
ftp: See file transfer protocol
GIF: See Graphics Interchange Format
gopher: A method of accessing information on a remote computer.
Consists of database browsing, document indexes, file transfer and
Graphics Interchange Format (GIF): A method of image compression
developed by CompuServe.
head: A part of an HTML document that contains information about
the document itself (ie. keywords, searchability, scripts, title).
HTML: See HyperText Markup Language
HTTP: See HypterText Transfer Protocol
hyperlink: A connection between a file and another file. See
hypertext: A system of relating points within and outside a text to
each other nonlinearly. Allowing a user to go where he/she wishes (to a
HyperText Markup Language (HTML): The "Language of Web pages."
HTML should, in theory, not make any references to the ultimate user's
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP): A transfer protocol where data
formats are transfered between a server and a client.
image (IMG): A HTML tag to insert images into a HTML
image map: An image with areas that are hyperlinks.
integrated services digital network (ISDN): Communications for
voice, data and video over standard phone lines at 128 kbps.
Internet: A worldwide network of computers in communication using
Internet Protocol (IP): A network of connections using numerical
(IP) addresses. Not necessarily directly connected. Information can be
sent on an indirect path through a multiple networks.
Internet service provider (ISP): A company that offers a connection
to the Internet.
IP address: The "dotted quad" (like 127.0.0.1). The IP address
represents a unique computer connected to the Internet. Domain names are
commonly assigned to an IP address, to make it easier to remember.
Java: A programming language developed by Sun Microsystems that was
designed to be a "universal" programming language. Java was designed to
be able to work on any platform. Java is commonly seen in Web
pages. Java programs are located on the server, and are compiled
on the client compter, to avoid problems between platforms.
language is incorporated directly into a HTML document. It is located
within the HTML code. An event driven scripting language.
Joint Photographic Experts Group Format (JPEG): A method of image
JPEG: See Joint Photographic Experts Group
link; See hyperlink
Linux: A UNIX based operating system. Developed as freewares.
Many smaller Internet services run Linux, which is maintained by
listserv: An automaded mailing list.
logical markup: The identification of a text's characteristics,
content, and structure. Compare physical markup
map: See image map
markup: The identification of a text's characteristics, content,
structure, and presentation by use of language-like descriptions. An
example would be HTML. see also logical markup, physical
MIDI: See Musical Instrument Digital
MIME: See Multipurpose Internet Mail
Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG): A standard for video and audio
compression. Currently there are 3 MPEG standards, each with several
MPEG: See Motion Picture Experts Group
multimedia: Commonly used to mean the integration of at least audio
and video elements into a computer presentation.
Mulitpurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME): A method of encoding
binary data for electronic mail transmission.
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI): A platform independent
specification of sonic parameters (note, volume, duration and
navigate: The movement through the Web using hyperlinks.
Net: The thing that hangs below the Rim. See
nonlinear: The idea that the Web is based on. It is set up so that
the path is not in a predefined order. It is exemplified by the Web's
hyperlinks. An example of something linear would be a novel, it is
read from the beginning to the end, with out skipping any thing or
jumping to any random place. An example of something nonlinear
would be a make-your-own-story book, it isn't read from the
beginning to the end, the reader (user) chooses where he/she goes.
page: A HTML document with a single URL.
parse: To examine raw code or markup to determine whether errors
are present, looking at structure, grammar and syntax.
password: A string of characters known only to a user and the
system/application in use. Passwords are meant to keep information
path: The director and sub-directory system that "leads" to a
Perl: See Practical Extraction and Report Language.
physical markup: The markup of a document's persentation. Physical
markup is a consistent with standard HTML practice in which it contributes
to structure and meaning as identified in the typographical world.
pixel: The pixel is the basic element of a raster display
(See raster graphics), represented as a dot containing
intensity and color information.
platform: The combination of hardware (processor, memory, etc.) and
software (operating system, applications, etc.) that makes up an
individual computer. HTML strives for platform independence, because
there are hundreds of platforms beyond DOS, Windows, Macintosh and
platform independence: The ability of applications, data or
programs to be used on any computer. Has not been fully achieved. HTML
is an attempt at platform independence. So is Java.
plug-in: An application that extends a browser's capability to
presnet advanced or custom content without changing browsers.
port: A entry point to a computer system. Can be a hardware or
software port. The Internet deals largely with software ports.
Practical Extraction and Report Language (Perl): A programming
language. Widely used for CGI.
protocol: A network communication standard. There are different
protocols for different things. HTTP transmits HTML documents, FTP
transmits files, TCP manages network traffic, IP handles data
proxy gateway: A computer and software that pass data between an
isolated computer and the outside world. They can be configured to pass
only "safe" information to the client.
proxy server: A computer that stores and distributes documents it
has obtained from other servers. Much like a local cache, but it's on a
remote computer, typically one that is easily accessed by the client
(their ISP). It keeps access costs down and frequently used documents
close at hand.
pull: A client initiated action. A client request for information
from a server.
push: A server initiated action. A server sending information,
like a video screen refresh.
raster graphics: A method of drawing images by altering the
intensity and color of an electron beam sweeping across video display
terminal phosphors in a regular pattern of horizontal lnies - the
Rim: See Net
script: A written set of instructions for performing tasks. Used
to save time, or make something more exciting. Scripting is a smaller
"version" of a programming language that's used within documents
scrolling: The movement of information on a screen horizontally
and/or vertically. To a Web author, vertical scrolling is expected, but
horizontal scrolling isn't.
search: To use Web tools to locate specific information on
Secured HyperText Transfer Protocol (SHTTP): An encrypted HTTP
protocol connection. Used for transfering sensitive information,
like credit card numbers.
security: The attempt to preserver privacy in data exchanges.
Ususally calls for data encryption and user authentication.
server: The combination of computer, software and network
connection that acts as a central location. The server acts on requests
for resources such as Web pages, applications or other data. It
is basically a remote computer.
server-side: Applications, activities, or events that take place on
the server, where information and responses are processed.
ShockWave: A browser plug-in that allows for animation and
SHTTP: See Secured HyperText Transfer
stream (1): A continuous flow of information.
stream (2): A flowing body of water.
streaming: The use of a data stream to present "time-based" content
(Stock prices, Live video, Sports events, etc.) When streaming occurs,
the client does not wait for the complete file to download before he/she
starts to view/listen to the file. He/she views/listens to the file while
structure: The organization of a document.
surf: To navigate the Web without desiring any specific
information. Compare search
table (1): An HTML tool used to present information in a
database/spreadsheet format. It is also used as a presentation
table (2): A piece of furniture. Used normally to hold objects off
of the ground (cups, plates, utinsels, magazines, etc.)
tag: Markup instruction in an HTML document. A tag exists with in
angled brackets. It may contain a declaration, statement as well as
TCP: See Transport Control Protocol
TCP/IP: See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Telnet: Login protocol to a remote computer. Enables a user to use
a computer from a distance, including (but not limited to)
manipulating files and executing applications.
template: A document/file that is made generically, so it can be
"customized" and saved with another name. Useful when a Web designer
makes many HTML documents that are similar.
terminal: The user end of a network. Usually a display and a
Transport Control Protocol (TCP): A connection that is
established between a client and server. Data that is transmitted is
broken down into packets which are addressed to the receiving computer
along with re-assembly information.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP): The
client/server connection and data transfer (TCP) combined with network
connection system (IP) used on the Internet.
Uniform Resource Citation (URC): Attributes that describe an
object's characteristics (size, origin, authorship, copyright,
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Set of identifications that
encompasses URCs, URLs, and URNs.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL): The patch to a specific document on
the Internet that consists of the protocol, an IP address or a domain
name, a directory structure, and the filename.
Uniform Resource Name (URN): Any identifier other than the
UNIX: An operating system, dating from the early 1970s.
Usenet: An informal collection of thens of thousands of thematic
groups. Users post ASCII or binary messages that propagate from server to
server, sometimes over a period of days.
username: A computer users's identification, nickname or "handle"
for a specific site, application, connection or server. Combined with a
password as a means of authentication.
VBScript: Microsoft's entry into scripting language for Web sites.
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML): Similar to HTML, in that
it has hyperlinking. But VRML deals with things of the third dimension,
lighting, shadow, viewpoints, backgrounds and the z-axis.
virus: An application (program) designed to hide inside digital
information. It is usually an application or active library that remains
outside of the control of the user. Viruses are normally destructive or
mischievous. They are commonly self-replicating.
W3C: See World Wide Web Consortium
WAIS: See wide area information service
Web: See World Wide Web
Web site: A group of Web pages (normally within one domain) and
dealing with one person or theme.
wide area information service (WAIS): An early method of indexing
and retrieving information on the Internet.
World Wide Web (WWW): The part of the Internet that implements the
concept of nonlinear information exchange in hyperlinks. The WWW operates
through the HTTP protocol.
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): A consortium to develop common
standards for teh Web. Members of the W3C propose standards and
WWW: See World Wide Web