On a keyboard you can see that there are only 7 real notes. A note can be modified by placing it in a higher or lower octave, using a sharp sign, or using a flat sign. A sharp sign will raise the pitch one half step and a flat sign will lower it one half step. The notes are put on a staff. A musician wll know exactly what note to play or sing depending on where it is and on what staff.
This is the treble staff with it's notes. Every individual line or space indicates a different note. In the treble staff the notes line up this way. An easy way to remember this is to make up a mnemonic. Some popular ones are Every Good Boy Does Fine or Elephants Got Big Dirty Feet for the lines, and the word F A CE for the spaces.
This is the bass staff and it's notes. Some popular mnemonics to remember them are Good Boys Do Fine Always for the lines and All Cows Eat Grass or All Cars Eat Gas for the spaces.
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