[ANSWER 1]         
1. Of these, who was the most active medieval feminist?
c. Christine de Pisan
Christine de Pisan was the most active medieval feminist among these choices. Joan of Arc, though certainly active and medieval, was not a feminist. She rallied for France, not for women's rights. St. Augustine was medieval, though he was not a woman and certainly no feminist. He was responsible for the perception of Eve as the cause of all of mankind's troubles. Margaret Paston, though very active and medieval, was not a feminist, either. She was an adept matriarch and businesswoman. The letters sent back and forth by her and other members of her family are a treasured resource.
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2. Which of the following were all medieval women mystics?
a. Marguerete Porete, Julian of Norwich, Hildegarde of Bingen
The answer is A. Marguerete Porete, Julian of Norwich, and Hildegarde of Bingen are all medieval women who devoted their lives to religion and religious writing. Eleanor of Aquitaine was a powerful medieval political figure during the reigns of England's Henry II and Richard I (Lionheart). Margaret Atwood is a modern feminist writer, author of A Handmaid's Tale and other books. Trotula of Salerno was a medieval physician whose works on female health are a testament to her skill. Margaret Paston was an adept medieval matriarch and businesswoman. St. Clare (of Assissi) was a mystic and a follower of St. Francis of Assissi. She formed a parallel order, the Poor Clares. Empress Matilda was a contender for the English throne in the 12th Century, fighting her cousin Stephen of Blois for it. Sappho of Lesbos was a Greek poetess.
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3. Who was responsible for the crowning of the French king at Rheims in 1429?
c. Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc, inspiring the French army, helped the Dauphin become Charles VII by winning several battles. Maria is a female soldier described by Petrarch in a letter. Barbara Tuchman is a historian, author of A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century, one of the books used to research this site. Lying historians, though responsible for a hefty portion of what we know as history (remember Washington and the cherry tree?), did not make this coronation up. It really happened.
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4. Which of these is a similarity between the Middle Ages and modern times?
c. Women are paid less than men for the same work.
Sad but true. Gender bias is a truly medieval notion. As to the other options, monasteries have taken a back seat in education, women are allowed to appear in court now, and tobacco was not available during the Middle Ages.
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5. Which of these women led troops?
d. All of the above
Joan of Arc, inspiring the French army, helped the Dauphin become Charles VII by winning several battles. Eleanor of Aquitaine was a powerful medieval political figure during the reigns of England's Henry II and Richard I (Lionheart). She led troops in the Holy Land while on Crusade with her first husband, Louis VII of France. Empress Matilda was a contender for the English throne in the 12th Century, fighting her cousin Stephen of Blois for it, sometimes personally.
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6. A woman's coat of arms appeared on this shape:
b. a lozenge
A lozenge, or diamond, shape was used to display coats of arms representing women. Shields were used by men. An ankh is the Egyptian symbol for life and fertility. "Bend sinister gules" is blazon (heraldic language) for "a red diagonal stripe".
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7. The land the bride brought with her as a wedding gift was called the --
The correct answer is B. The bride's contribution to the marriage was dowry; the husband's, dower. Heriot is a death tax paid by women when their husbands die. Dowdy is an unflattering adjective.
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8. Of the following, who was the most prominent medieval woman mathematician?
d. None of the above
Neither Hypatia, Lady Ada Lovelace, nor Copernicus was the most prominent woman mathematician in the Middle Ages. Hypatia was a female mathematician of great reknown during the time of the Greeks. Lady Ada Lovelace was also a mathematician, the daughter of Lord Byron and a collaborator on the great unrealized Analytical Engine (a precursor of modern computers). Copernicus, though nearer in time to the Middle Ages, was not a woman.
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9. In what year did Joan of Arc burn at the stake?
Joan of Arc burned in 1431, aged nineteen, just two years after Charles VII was crowned at Rheims.
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10. Which of these is a long, large-sleeved garment from the late Middle Ages?
c. the houppelande
The correct answer is C, the houppelande. A cope is a semicircular cape; a hennin is a headdress. Disney, of course, is a major motion picture company.
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