Peace after World War I was short-lived. Twenty-one
years after the end of the War, a second war took place.
The Second World War proved more destructive than the
first. More countries took part in the fighting, new and
deadly weapons were employed, and as a result, more
people were killed or injured. In this chapter, we shall
read about how this Second World War was brought about
due to the selfish, greedy desires of three nations,
Germany, Italy and Japan.
After the Allies defeated the Central Powers in the
First World War, a peace treaty was signed between the
two parties. Germany was only allowed to have a small
army and navy. The country had to compensate the Allies
for the damage during the War. As a result, Germany
became poor and its people experienced hardships.
troubled times, Adolf Hitler
arose as the leader. He and his friends formed
the National Socialist German Workers Party
(Nazi Party). They aimed to restore the power and
wealth of Germany. In 1932, the Nazi Party became
the largest party in the government.
|Hitler then became
the Head of the Germany government. He changed
the entire German government system within days.
Only the Nazi Party was allowed to exist. Hitler
ruled like a dictator. No one was allowed to
oppose him. He set up the Gestapo, a secret
police force, to arrest all those who were
suspected of or who were opposing him.
||In order to gain the
Germans support and loyalty, Hitler
controlled all forms of mass media. He spread his
ideas through the mass media. Being a skilful
public speaker, Hitler soon won the trust of the
people. He also took bold steps to build up the
German military forces. In this way, Germany
seemed to be getting ready for another war.
there was yet another dictator -- Mussolini, the
ruler of Italy. Mussolini ruled with the Fascist
Party. Like Hitler, Mussolini controlled the
minds of the Italians through the mass media.
||All those who
opposed him were put to death. Mussolini aimed to
make Italy powerful. He saw the need to capture
colonies to provide Italy with raw materials for
MODERNISATION OF JAPAN
|During the second
part of the 19th century, Japan saw how its
neighbour, China, was repeatedly defeated by
Japan thus vowed to
strengthen and expand its country. It did not
want to suffer the same fate as China.
||Steps were taken to
modernise and hence strengthen Japan. A new
system of government was introduced and education
Japan also gained knowledge
of modern technology by sending its students
abroad and inviting foreign expertise to the
In less than 50 years, Japan was completely
modernised. It became a modern, industrial and powerful
|The ambitious Japan
aimed to be rich and powerful. As its industries
grew and armed forces strengthened, it wanted to
conquer more lands. It wanted to expand its
foreign trade and get raw materials for its
||In 1894, Japan
attacked China over the control of Korea. With
new weapons and modern warfare methods, Japan
defeated China. In 1895, China lost Taiwan to
|In 1904, Japan
defeated Russia. It hence gained control of
Russias port in China and also part of
Russias shore of Manchuria.
||During World War I,
Japan was with the Allies. It defeated Germany
and gained control of part of China which was
under German control and also Germanys
islands in the Pacific Ocean.
|Japan was greatly
affected by the Great Depression during the
1930's. In order to get raw materials for its
factories, it invaded and conquered Manchuria in
||Not satisfied with
Manchuria, Japan began to attack China. In 1937,
it attacked places like Beijing and Shanghai. It
was clear that Japan was becoming increasingly