1917 - The October Revolution leading by Lenin begane. The ideas soon spread accross the Europe and activated the movement of working class.
Futurism - a movement, having its roots in Itally from before the first world war, was a 20th - century revolt against tradition and brough fascination with moderning and technical progress.
Expressionism - it started in Germany at the beginning of 20th century as a revolt against the matherialistic culture of bourgeoisie. The most important for the artist was to expression emotions and reactions to experience, sometimes to shock. The form was very important for expressionist.
Skamander - the group of 5 eminent poets publishing thier works on the literacy magazines: "Skamander" (1920-28 and 1935-39) and "Literary News" (1924-39). Their poetry of everyday reality was in oposition to romanticism and modernism, but still it was more traditional than then vanguar.
Existentialism - a philosophical doctrine concentrated on a personal freedom of individual. The freedom of creating values for themselves and accepting responsibilities for their choices makes an existentialist often experience trenendous anexiety and despair.
Peiper put stress on the progress and development of the city. The New art was going to accompany social changes by destroying old traditional forms and creating new means of expression. In Europe those vanguard trends appeard at about 1910, in Poland between the world wars.
Zagary - was for the name of the magazine and the group of people working as in editorial staff between 1931 and 1934. The group owed it existance to such a cultural circles of Vilnus as Intelectualist's Club or Vagabond's Club. On the beginning, Zagary was mainly concentrated on the young poets discussion about the art.One of those poets was Czeslaw Milosz. Only later Zagary turned to the left wing politics which resulted in splitting the group for those with literary and political interests. Milosz wasn't interested in political views of Zagary.
"Second Vanguard" - consists of literacy achievments of J.Czechowicz's circle and Zagary group. What all those different individualists have in common is thier radicalism and catastrophism.
Generation 1910 - there were the authors born around the 1910 so they were the first generation brought up in independent country. They shared similar life experiences like the big economic crisis of 30th's, and deap social conflicts of those days. They presented variety of attitudes from catastrophism and existentialism to irony, satire and grotesque.
Polish - Russian war in 1919-20 - was consed by hostile to Russian revolution members of Polish government, who had French support. It was finished by a ceasefire in Ryge.
Generation with "spots"- made their deubt in years 1948-49. They were called like this by Kott for their very youthful enthusiasm as they were mainly the followers of Socialist Realism. The generation disappears with the collapse of ideas of Socialist Realism in 1956
Generation 1920 - The suthors born at around 1920 can by decided for: a) those who made their deubt during the war, and were connected with the Warsaw resistance movement and as a result was killed b) those who were as well taking part in the resistance movement and made thair deubt after the war. They create the poetry of death and the lost of values.
Marxism - a political and economic doctrine created by C.Marx and F.Engels, and followed by Lenin was the base for socialistic ideology of working class.
AK(Home Army) - was a military organisation set up by the Pilish Government on emigration (in London) in 1942 to restore (with the allies help) the country with the same political system and frontiers as it was before 1939. AK was dissolved in 1945.
Socialist Realism - demanded from the authors admiration and applause for the new political system (1949-56). The most popular subjects were: restoration of the country after the war, the class-war and the difficultes with reinforcing a new system, hard work in factories and rural areas problems. The writters were supposed to gloryfy actual political trends.
Generation 56 ('contemporaries' - is for their periodical) They were the writers who were born between 1930 end 1935 and share the experience of the Polish October' 56, which ended the most represive years of comunists regime. Their writing strikes us with its independence from Socialist Realism estathics and the variety of forms and styles. The similarities are in novelty, anty-estethism, criticism of tradicional values and official culture. There is intimacy pesimism and irony which are not known to the previous period.
Generation 60. The writers born just arounded the war time, make their debut in 60's. There is a very good time for poetry writing, a lot of new trends develop, they are a lot of poetry festivals and competiton and it is relatively easy to publish. Writers of 'Generation 60' try to describe reality using new means of expression. They touch very vital for 20th century, philosophical, moral and politycal issues.
"Dziady" ( the 3 parts drama ) by A. Mickiewicz has been always very important to Poles in reminding then about the freedom. Part III, expecially, tells about suffering of the Polish nation under Russian invasion in XIX century.
"The New Wave Generation" called as well 'Generation 68' , 'Generation 70' - the main historical experiences for them are the mass protests in 68 and 70. With the new poetry comes along animation of so called student's culture bringing to life interesting artistic phenomenons like: "Theatre of Eight's Day" (" Teatr Osmego Dnia ") from Poznan or "Theatre of 100' ( Teatr Stu ) from Krakow. The new poetry is very close to everyday reality, puts stress current affairs. They don't want to isolate peotry from social and political experiences. They are famous for their linguistic experiments.
"Solidarity" ( Solidarnosc ) - the trade union set up in 80's with the statuary bored on the consumption. The leaders come from the active members of anticomunist - oposition. On 13th December 1981 the People's State Council ( Rada Panstwa ) suspended activity of the union.
"Regine 81 "- Many citizeans rights and freedoms have suspended and the governing bodies increased their power.
"Generation of BruLion'' -the young poets and writers who make their debuts in democratic Poland. They rebeil against the official culture and have no respect for authorities, beliving that everyone has to face his moral dilemmas. In searching for the meaning they take up any issue. There is nothing like "tabu" or "sacrediness" and scandal appears as a natural result of creating process.