Battles of Saratoga
In the spring of 1777 the British strategist Lord George Germain signed a major plan to end the American rebellion. The plans called for major General John "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne to march from Canada to Albany, New York. He believed that if Britain controlled Albany and the Hudson River, they could separate New England from the other colonies.
In June, Burgoyne and his military left Montreal and took Fort Ticonderoga in July. However on August 16, minutemen successfully defended their supplies at Bennington, Vermont. Burgoyne moved on to Fort Miller to refill supplies where he experienced a three-week delay. With a reduced army, he worked south to Albany there he encountered 7000 Americans under the command of Major General Horatio Gates. The British attacked the entrenched army on September 13 at Freeman's Fall (First Battle of Saratoga). Major General Bendict Arnold and his men came as reinforcements, however, they were not strong enough to hold the redcoats back. While the Americans retreated to Bemis Heights, Burgoyne camped two miles north.
The turning point of the war started on October 7. Burgoyne with fewer than 5000 men, refused to withdraw and continued looking for American positions. Gates and Arnold fearlessly attacked the British in the Battle of Bemis Heights (Second Battle of Saratoga). Burgoyne retreated to Saratoga where he then surrendered to 20,000 Americans on October 17.