The Battle of Brandywine & Germantown
Two major battles of the American Revolutionary War that were fought in Pennsylvania. The battle of Brandywine was fought on September 11, 1777, near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, southwest of Philadelphia. After a month of strategic maneuvering, Sir William Howe marched his troops toward Philadelphia, the unofficial capital of America. Washington had been watching Howe carefully and rushed to stop him from reaching the city. Marquis de Lafayette, a French alley, served with Washington to fight for American freedom. He was a great help to Washington in training the Continental Army.
Howe with 18,000 men went to the American post at Brandywine Creek. They launched a full scale attack on 11,000 of George Washington's men, with Howe in front and Gen. Cornwallis to the right. The Americans were totally unaware that the British would try to cross the creek in separate places. Washington backtracked to Chester, Pennsylvania. A British pursuit was stopped by a rearguard unit, therefore, Howe could not occupy the abandoned capital until September 26. British deaths totaled to about 600 and American losses were 900 dead and wounded, along with 400 taken prisoner.
After Howe's victory at Brandywine, his army camped at Germantown, Pennsylvania. On October 4, 1777, Washington planned a surprise attack against the redcoats at sunrise. He broke the army into four separate columns for battle. The American soldiers marched to Germantown by two roads, with General Sullivan to the right and General Greene to the left. Washington, along with General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, joined Sulliven and caused the British to fall back.
Some hundred men ran and hid in the Chew house, a large stone building, and returned fire from the second story. Instead of by-passing the building, Colonel Knox believed that they should destroy the house with the redcoats in it. Knox's fired cannons at the home, which merely bounced back at them. The fog and smoke caused massive confusion for several other of Washington's columns. All of a sudden two American divisions collided and fired upon each other. More and more mishaps followed, and finally Washington' men retreated.