Military and Political Leaders
of World War I
(1868-1918) Nicholas II was the last czar of Russia. He believed in wielding absolute power, but did not have the talent or know-how to do it well. Russia's defeat at the hands of Germany in World War I made Nicholas appear incompetent to the Russian people. In the fall of 1917, a group of revolutionaries called the Bosheviks captured the Russian government. They took the czar and his family as prisoners. Czar Nicholas II, his wife Czarina Alexandra, and their family were reportedly executed on July 16, 1918.
(1860-1952)Vittorio Emanuele Orlando was Italy's prime minister during World War I. He led the Italian presence at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919. He demanded more territory for Italy. However, when he failed to acquire it, he was forced to tender his resignation. At the beginning of Mussolini's rise in 1922, Orlando supported him. This changed, however, when Mussolini had a Socialist leader killed. In 1943, Orlando helped to overthrow Mussolini.
(1797-1888) Kaiser Wilhelm II was the emperor of Germany in World War I. He came to the throne in 1888. In 1890, he broke off the old ties with Russia, causing Germany to have to fight a two-front war. This blunder led Germany to defeat. In November of 1918, the German Navy mutinied, and Wilhelm II abdicated his position. He lived in exile for 20 years in the Netherlands.
(1856-1924) Woodrow Wilson, the 28th President of the United States, was a gifted scholar, teacher, and statesman. During his Presidency, many modernizations took place in American culture. At the outbreak of the First World War, he tried to maintain American neutrality as long as possible, but he was soon compelled to ask for a Declaration of War. His Fourteen Points speech guided the way to peace, and after the war he helped to gain support for the new League of Nations, for which he won the Noble Peace Prize.He suffered a major stroke on October 2, 1919. He died on February 3, 1924.
"We will not choose the path of submission."