Direct contact witht he mat or the opponent can cause injury. The rules do not allow clams,
and at least in high school and collegiate competition, most of the dangerous throws and moves
have been made illegal.
Direct blows to the head, resulting in compression or stretch injuries to the neck, or to the
shoulder, resulting in sprains, are the most frequent injuries from throws. Another way neck injuries
occur is with hyperextension. This can occur as a wrestler's head hits his opponent's thigh
as he is penetrating for a takedown.
The knee frequently hits the mat during a takedown attempt. A bloody or serous effusion can occur
from either a single blow or repetitive trauma.
The undisputed most frequent injury is the nosebleed, but broken noses is much less
frequent. Concussions and facial lacerations result from direct head-to-head collisions, such as
when both wrestlers attempt a takedown at the same time. Also relatively frequent are
hemorraging of the ear, or califlower ear.
Friction injuries accounts for most of the infections seen in wrestlers. It has not been well-documented
how it is transferred from one wrestler to another, but the primary reason is likely direct
contact with an infected wrestler, which would explain why most cases are on the face. Another common
skin infection is impetigo, which is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus, but may be Streptococcus.
A common injury, especialy for knee injuries, is twisting aand indirect force. Forces result in a number of ailments: muscle pulls, ligament sprains, and meniscal tears. The ankle, shoulder, and fingers are all susceptible.