In the late 19th century, more trumpets became pitched in Bb, following in the popularity of the Bb cornet. Trumpets also were built in different keys, such as C and D. This allowed players to hit higher notes easier than they would be able to on a B flat trumpet. A piccolo trumpet was even invented that had half as much tubing as a regular trumpet, thereby putting the fundemental notes at a pitch an octave above the other. This trumpet was especially important because it allowed trumpeters to play the Second Brandenberg Concerto by Bach in which notes in the extreme high registers of the instrument had to be played.
Composers began to write parts for trumpets that were meant to be played on certain types of trumpets, like C or piccolo trumpets. This helped these other instruments to catch on and are used on a daily basis in present day orchestras.
Another European add-on to trumpets were putting
rotary valves, like a french horns's, in place of piston valves (This idea
was first used in 1835). These trumpets produced a dark sound that composers
like Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss wanted in their music. Although
rotary valve trumpets are not in such demand in the United States because
rotaries do not get as many overtones, they are widely used by trumpet players
Cornets | Antiquity