THE POSSESSIVE WITH 'S AND '
FORMING THE POSSESSIVE WITH 'S AND '
Possession is often indicated in English by adding 's or ' at the end of the noun indicating the possessor.
John owns a car. ('John' is the possessor)
It is John's car.
Mary is the wife of Peter.
Mary is Peter's wife.
The car of John = John's car.
The house of Simon = Simon's house.
The room of the girls = The girls' room.
The jobs for men = The men's jobs.
The sister of Charles = Charles' sister.
The boat of the sailors = The sailors' boat.
Using 's and '
1.Singular nouns take 's
2.irregular plurals take 's
1.The car of John = John's car.
2.The dresses of the women = The women's dresses
3.Nouns ending in s (plural or singular take '
3.The sister of Charles = Charles' sister
4.The boat of the sailors = The sailors' boat.
5.The teacher of the students = The students' teacher.
6.The fortune of Howard Hughes= Howard Hughes' fortune.
FUNCTION AND CLASSES OF DETERMINERS
A determiner qualifies a noun. It makes the reference of the noun more precise.
2.Classes of Determiners
There are seven classes of determiners
The Definite and Indefinite articles:
the, an, a
this, that, these, those
my, your, his, her, its, our, their
a few, a little, much, many, a lot of, most, any, enough, some etc.
such and what
either, or, neither, nor, each, every
DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLES THE, A, AN
The articles do not have gender in English (there are no masculine or feminine articles)
1 Definite article : THE
The boys. (n.b. plural)
The definite article is not usually used :
GENERAL RULES: the definite article is not generally used:
a.In front of proper nouns:
b.In front of the names of languages
c.In front of meal names
d.In front of titles indicating the name or position of someone.
e.After the 's of the possessive.
f.With nouns that are uncountable
Rice is the main food in Asia.
In front of proper nouns
a.Germany is an important economic power.
b.Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
c.Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
In front of the names of languages
a.French is spoken in Tahiti.
b.English uses many words of Latin origin.
c.Indonesian is a relatively new language.
In front of the names of meals
a.Lunch is at midday.
b.Dinner is in the evening.
c.Breakfast is the first meal of the day.
In front of people's titles or professions
a.Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
b.President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
c.Dr.Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.
After the 's possessive case
a.His brother's car.
c.My mother's friend.
With uncountable nouns
a.Rice is the main food in Asia.
b.Milk is often added to tea in England.
c.War is destructive.
The indefinite articles : a, an
a goes before a consonnant
an before a vowel.
An before an h mute: - an hour, an honour.
A before u and eu when they are pronounced 'you': a european, a university, a unit.
The indefinite article is used before professions, nationalities and religions
John is a doctor.
He is an Englishman.(He is English)
He is a Protestant.
THE DEMONSTRATIVES : THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE, THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE
They indicate distance between the speaker and the object (physical or psychological) .
.Function and Position
a. Position :
i. In front of the noun
ii.Alone when the noun is 'understood'.
I like this car.
I do not like that car.
How much are these?
What are those?
b. Function :
i. This, that are singular.
ii.These, those are plural.
She knows this man.
He knows that woman.
She knows these men.
He knows those women.
They indicate the distance of the object from the speaker.
It can be a physical distance as in :
Who owns that house? (distant)
Is this John's house? (near)
Or it can be a psychological distance as in :
I do not like that man. (distant)
This is a nice surprise! (near)
Possessive pronouns and possessive adjectivesPERSON ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS 1st (I) my mine 2nd (you) your yours 3rd (he) his his (she) her hers (it) it its Plural 1st (we) our ours 2nd (you) your yours 3rd (they) their theirs
1. In English the possessive refers to the possessor and not to the thing possessed.
Jane's brother is married to John's sister.
Her brother is married to his sister.
a. Peter and his sister.
b. Jane and her father.
c. Do you know where your books are?
d. Is this their picnic? No, it is ours.
e. I think this is your passport. Yes, it is yours.
They are used for quantities (amounts) that are approximative and inexact.
I have a little money.
I have many friends. .
MUCH and MANY, (A) LITTLE, (A) FEW, A LOTWith nouns that we can count.
a few, few, many
Used with nouns that we can not count.
a little, little, much
With both countable and uncountable nouns:
A lot of
Generally, much et many are used with the negative and interrogative forms.
With the affirmative form we use a lot of.
With countable nouns: many, few, a few, a lot of
a. Are there many people in Australia?
b. No, there are few people in Australia.
c. Would you like a few postcards?
d. He hasn't many opportunities.
e. Judy has a lot of friends.
With uncountable nouns: much, little, a little, a lot of.
a. How much is that dress?
(note: we can omit the noun 'money')
b. I have a little money in the bank.
c. She doesn't have much time with her children.
d. There is a lot of information about Italy in this travel brochure.
e. How much do you know about China?
SOME and ANY
SOME and ANY are used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
They indicate a part or quantity of a substance or object.
SOME is usually used in an affirmative sentence.
SOME can also be used in interrogative or hypothetical sentences.
Would you like some more tea?
Will you have some cake?
ANY is generally used in negative or interrogative sentences.
SOME with affirmative sentences.
a. I will have some news next week.
b. She has some valuable books in her house.
c. Philip wants some help with his exams.
d. There is some butter in the fridge.
e. We need some cheese if we want to make a fondue.
SOME with interrogative hypothetic sentences.
a. Would you like some help?
b. Will you have some more roast beef?
ANY with negative sentences
a. She doesn't want any kitchen appliances for Christmas.
b. They don't want any help moving to their new house.
c. No, thank you. I don't want any more cake.
d. There isn't any reason to complain.
ANY with interrogative sentences
a. Do you have any friends in London?
b. Have they any children?
c. Do you want any groceries from the shop?
d. Are there any problems with your work?
Compound nouns made with SOME , ANY and NO
Words formed with SOME or ANY follow the same rules as SOME and ANY used alone.
Words formed with NO (nothing, nobody, nowhere) are used in affirmative sentences to give a negative sense to the sentence.
I don't know anybody. = I know nobody.
She doesn't want anything. = She wants nothing.
Check these word in your dictionary:
Somebody, something, somewhere
Anybody, anything, anywhere
Nobody, nothing, nowhere
SOMETHING, SOMEBODY, SOMEWHERE ( + affirmative)
a. I have something to tell you.
b. There is something to drink in the fridge.
c. He knows somebody in New York.
d. Susie has somebody staying with her.
e. They want to go somewhere hot for their holidays.
f. Keith is looking for somewhere to live.
ANYBODY, ANYTHING, ANYWHERE ( + Interrogative and Negative)
a. Is there anybody who speaks English here?
b. Does anybody have the time?
c. Is there anything to eat?
d. Have you anything to say?
e. He doesn't have anywhere to stay tonight.
f. I wouldn't eat anywhere except at Maxim's.
NOBODY, NOTHING, NOWHERE (+ affirmative)
a. There is nobody in the house at the moment.
b. When I arrived there was nobody to meet me.
c. I have learnt nothing since I began the course.
d. There is nothing to eat.
e. There is nowhere as beautiful as Paris in the Spring.
f. Homeless people have nowhere to go at night.
ANY with the Affirmative
Here the possible CHOICE is from the whole range of possibilities.
a. You can borrow any of my books.
b. They can choose anything from the menu.
c. You may invite anybody to dinner, I don't mind.
They function like comparatives and hold a relative position on a scale of increase or decrease.
From O% to 100%
With plural countable nouns:
many, more, most
With uncountable nouns:
much ,more, most
From 100% to 0%
With plural countable nouns:
few, fewer, fewest
With uncountable nouns:
little, less, least
a. There are many people in England, more in India, but the most people live in China.
b. Much time and money is spent on education, more on health services but the most is spent on national defence.
c. Few rivers in Europe are not polluted.
d. Fewer people die young now than in the seventeenth century.
e. The country with the fewest people per square kilometre must be Australia.
f.Scientists have little hope of finding a complete cure for cancer before the year 2,000.
g. She had less time to study than Paul but had better results.
h. Give that dog the least opportunity and it will bite you.
a few and a little have a different meaning than few and little:
a few, a little = positive meaning
I have a few friends.= I have SOME friends.
I have a little money. = I have SOME money.
few, little = negative meaning
I have few friends.= I do not have MANY friends.
I have little money.= I do not have MUCH money.
ENOUGH + NOUN
Enough goes before the noun
There is enough bread for lunch.
She has enough money.
Enough is often used with adjectives and adverbs.
a. We didn't have enough time to visit London Bridge.
b. Are there enough eggs to make an omelette?
c. Richard has enough talent to become a singing star.
HALF, DOUBLE, BOTH, ALL
Half = 50%
Double = the quantity + 100% of that quantity
Both = the two , not only the one (this one AND that one)
All = 100%, whole amount
ALL and HALF
With nouns that are countable and with nouns that are uncountable.
BOTH with nouns that are plural and countable
DOUBLE with uncountable nouns
a. You can have half of the cake and Peter can have the other half.
b. There is a double quantity of rice for the hurricane victims.
c. Both children were born in Italy.
d. All men are born equal.
NUMBERSNumber Cardinal Ordinal 1 one first 2 two second 3 three third 4 four fourth 5 five fifth 6 six sixth 7 seven seventh 8 eight eighth 9 nine ninth 10 ten tenth 11 eleven eleventh 12 twelve twelfth 13 thirteen thirteenth 14 fourteen fourteeth 15 fifteen fifteenth 16 sixteen sixteenth 17 seventeen seventeenth 18 eighteen eighteenth 19 nineteen nineteenth 20 twenty twentieth 21 twenty-one twenty-first 22 twenty-two twenty-second 23 twenty-three twenty-third 24 twenty-four twenty-fourth 25 twenty-five twenty-fifth 26 twenty-six twenty-sixth 27 twenty-seven twenty-seventh 28 twenty-eight twenty-eighth 29 twenty-nine twenty-ninth 30 thirty thirtieth 31 thirty-one thirty-first 40 forty fortieth 50 fifty fiftieth 60 sixty sixtieth 70 seventy seventieth 80 eighty eightieth 90 ninety ninetieth 100 one hundred hundredth 500 five hundred five hundredth 1,000 one thousand thousandth 100,000 one hundred thousand hundred thousandth 1,000,000 one million millionth
a. There are twenty-five people in the room.
b. He was the fourteenth person to win the award since 1934.
c. Six hundred thousand people were left homeless after the earthquake.
d. I must have asked you twenty times to be quiet.
e. He went to Israel for the third time this year.Written Said 25% twenty five percent 50% fifty percent 75% seventy five percent 100% one hundred percent $1,200 one thousand two hundred dollars £16,486 sixteen thousand four hundred and eighty-six pounds 545kms five hundred and forty-five kilometres $25.35 twenty-five dollars thirty-five 1988 Nineteen eighty-eight 1864 Eighteen sixty-four 1999 Nineteen ninety-nine
THE EXCLAMATIVES: SUCH and WHAT
These excalamatives introduce an expression of surprises, admiration or another strong emotion or reaction.
What a surprise!
Such a waste!
Such a terrible man!
What a disgusting cup of coffee!
What a lovely day!
She's such a lovely woman!
What an incredible film!
He's such a fantastic guitarist!
THE DISTRIBUTIVES :EITHER, NEITHER, EACH, EVERY
Each, every, either, neither indicate how something is distributed, divided or shared.:
They are used with singular nouns, before the noun.
Each boy, every day, neither film, either café.
Each man will receive $100.
a. Every third morning John goes jogging.
b. He has lunch at midday each working day.
c. Neither boy was given the prize.
d. I can stay at either hotel, they are both good.