Flora and fauna
· Tropical Forests
· Sub-alpine forests
· Alpine scrubs
Why are these animals endangered?
How much money do the poachers make?
Other temperate forests include forests of oak at an altitude of 2500m-3500m. They are dense forests with individual trees rising upto 20m and more in height. In drier patches, these forests are intermixed with deodar and blue pine. The oak forests are mainly found in regions experiencing climatic conditions from temperate to sub-arctic. Snow forms the majority of the annual precipitation, with hailstorms occurring in April and May. These forests have also undergone degradation due to felling of trees for fuelwood, fodder, and timber. Along with the oak forests lie the fir forests. They usually occur slightly higher - between an altitude of 2600m-3600m.
Other forests in the middle altitudes include the cypress forests between the altitude of 1800m and 2800m, in regions of temperate to sub-arctic climate. These occur in relatively drier conditions and hence are open forests.
Forests of blue pine are found between an elevation of about 2100m and 2600m in areas of temperate to sub-arctic conditions. They can be found in areas of relatively poor and shallow soil. In these regions grasses and other species thrive during the rainy seasons and die out later on. A thick layer of pine needles covers the forest floor under these forests. These forests can even grow on poorer soils like the highly sandy soils near rivers. This forest is a pioneering vegetation and can grow on very rocky soils, fresh landslides and even recently burnt areas.
Forests of chilgoza or neoza pine occur in the drier cold desert regions. Tree growth is sparse due to the harsh climatic conditions which may even result in stunted or malformed trees. These trees gain a height of upto 18m. The soil in the region is generally fragile, poor in nutrients and very rocky at places. Chilgoza forests occur commonly in the Kinnaur Himalayas of India, extending from the banks of the Satluj river up to the middle elevations in the valley.
Dry temperate forests, as the mane suggests are found in drier areas of the region having temperate to sub-arctic conditions. They occur between an elevation of 2000 and 2500m. These forests include both broad-leaved and coniferous species. Open patches of grasslands are found with these forests. The trees, however, are relatively short and do not grow to more than about 18 m. These forests occur in areas of poor shallow soils which otherwise get eroded quite fast. The regions usually receive little rainfall and a large amount of snowfall throughout winter.
Dry forests of Deodar occur in dry tracts between 1800-3000m with trees becoming stunted at higher elevations. The soil quality is generally very poor and prone to erosion. At higher elevations, between 2700m and 4300m, juniper forests are found. These are open evergreen forests consisting of dwarfed and stunted individual trees. The climatic conditions here are even more severe - varying from sub-arctic to arctic. Summer temperatures usually do not exceed 28 C while winters are bitterly cold.
All rights reserved