Saving The World
The World at The Present Time
Nowadays, human activities not only affect our resources but they are affecting the world too.There are a few changes which occur to the landscape and the natural structures. The biodiversity is also affected by pollution, logging and loss of habitats. At the same time, the air is polluted by emissions such as carbon monoxide, sulphur monoxide, dust particles, smoke and other dangerous gases mostly in urban areas and industrial sectors. Toxic chemicals cause damage to the soil, water, air and to ourselves.
We need to start protecting our world from now on to ensure the safety of the young, youth and future generations. This is because by the time the world reaches a critical condition, Earth will no longer be a safe place to live in and people may end up living underground longing for clean air.
The main composition of the Earth consists of:
The Earth's Composition
|Biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
Biosphere - The Bio-Organism
Biosphere is the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth or other planets where living organisms exist. So basically, it is where ever a living ORGANISM can live, be it sky, or ocean or land. They are all biosphere. In 1875 geologist Eduard Suess coined the word, Biosphere. He defined it as follow:
"The place on Earth's surface where life dwells."
Biosphere overlaps with the other '-spheres' which are:
Lithosphere : Earth's crust & minerals
Lithosphere is the Earth's crust or the layer from the upper mantle. It consists of rock materials, soil or other minerals found from underground. Nevertheless, the surface we are walking on everyday is actually the lithosphere. Lithosphere is important to preserve soil fertility, farming, developments, wastes disposal and even the conservation of forests.
Without lithosphere, water and nutrients cannot be absorbed for plantations and underground water supplies. In fact, there will be no formation of fossil fuels. Lithosphere becomes the home for many luxurious minerals like diamonds, crystal, ore and other underground secreted materials.
Hydrosphere : Water on Earth
What is actually hydrosphere? Hydrosphere is water that compliments either on or surrounds our Earth. Recently researchers have detected a great pollution of hydrosphere which is caused by our own doings. Hydrosphere can be found in various forms:
- In Biosphere - plants, animals, humans etc.
- Under the Earth's sediments, crust and rocks.
- Water that covers the Earth's surface (3/4) in liquid plus solid forms such as ice and snow.
- Water vapour and atmospheric water in the air.
Biosphere, Lithosphere & Hydrosphere
|Bio-organisms are biosphere.
|Layers of lithosphere.
|Water surfaces are hydrosphere.
Atmosphere - Air that surrounds us
The Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases that are retained by the Earth's gravity. The Earth's atmosphere extends from surface level to a towering 10 000 km above surface level. The atmosphere is composed of a number of gases, namely, Nitrogen which makes up 78% of the Earth's atmosphere, which is followed by Oxygen which makes up 21%, next is Argon which makes up 0.9% of the atmosphere, and then of course, there is Carbon Dioxide which makes up 0.04 of the atmosphere. The remaining is made up of water vapour and other trace gases.
Atmosphere - Layers
The outermost layer of the atmosphere that ranges from 500 to 1000 km up to 10 000 km into space. Consists of freely moving air particles.
This section of the atmosphere is ionized by Solar radiation and it stretches from 50km to 1000km in the atmosphere. This part of the atmosphere affects radio waves because of its charged particles.
Ranges from 80-85km to 640 km. The temperature here can rise to 1500 degrees Celcius.
The Mesosphere extends from 50km to 80-85 km. This is wherer most meteors burn up.
The stratosphere extends from 7-17 km up to 50km. The stratosphere contains the Ozone layer, the layer that protects us from ultraviolet rays.
This layer extends from surface level to 7-17km and is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. This layer of the atmosphere helps maintain the Earth's temperature.