History and Origin of Water
There are many theories concerning the origins of water on Earth or how water came to Earth. According to the Book of Genesis of the Holy Bible, God, which pertains to the God of the Jews and Christians, created water on the second day of creation. However, the Bible said nothing about how God did it. Scientists have theories about the origin of water on our planet.
About 4.5 billion years ago when Earth was not like this, hydrogen and oxygen atoms combined as steam, a form of water, since it cannot bear a liquid state yet because of the high temperature of the molten rocks that make up Earth. It rose from the Earth and cooled to form water.
Still, some scientists believe that water came from asteroids, comets, and meteors from the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud. However, the water that came from there were not the water that we have right now. The hydrogen which makes it up is deuterium or heavy hydrogen, which is an isotope* of hydrogen that has a neutron on its nucleus.
*isotopes - elements having the same atomic number but different atomic mass.
Since the ancient times, water is believed to be an element, including air, earth, fire, and wind.
In 1781, Henry Cavendish, a British chemist, discovered the composition of water by synthesizing it through detonating a mixture of water and air. He said that water comprises of phlogiston (which was discovered to be hydrogen) and dephlogisticated air (which was discovered to be oxygen).
In 1783, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, a French chemist and also called the "Father of Chemistry", proved that water was, in fact, a compound and not an element.
In 1804, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, a French chemist, and Alexander von Humboldt, a German naturalist, jointly proved that water is two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen.
That is how our present basic knowledge about water developed.
Scientists of Water
Source: Water Structure and Science
by Martin Chaplin
|Antoine Laurent Lavoisier
Source: UTMB Academic