Accessing Urban Poverty(2)
The poor boy in my city
|This boy is one of the many urban people in Bandung. In order to get some food, he has to work every afternoon.|
Our survey of urban poverty
In order to understand others’ views on urban poverty, our team had a social survey of urban poverty. And the file is our report.
File Type: MS Word Document: 24 K
Summary of this step(part 1)
Our team has done this investigation for a week. And we have a more comprehensive understanding of urban poverty:
I definition of urban poverty
The international poverty standards of the World Bank is "1 day 1 U.S dollars." Those who earn less than one dollar/ day belong to the poor urban. In China, the poor urban families are referring to the urban residents living below the line of the population, but a minimum standard of living of each city has a different line. In 2001, Chinese poor urban should be at the scale from 15 to 31 million people among the Chinese urban population accounted for 4 percent of the total number of -8%. Accounted for one of the most poverty-stricken population of the western region of China, such as: Qinghai, Ningxia, Guizhou, 50%, respectively, 48%, 45%. The smallest poverty population in China is Shanghai.
II The features of urban poverty
According to the material of the World Bank, urban poverty can be summed up in three features: the first is the lack of opportunity to participate in economic activities; the second is no right to speak on important decision-making; the third is easily affected by economic and other shocks, such as disease, food production, macro-economic depression and so on. In "World Development Report 1990" of the World Bank, "poverty" was defined as the lack of a minimum capacity of the standard of living. That is absolute poverty as we usually said. At the United Nations Development Program, "Human Development Report 1997", the "poverty" is defined: The basic demands(including life, health, living, knowledge, participation, personal safety and the environment) can't be met.
Summary of this step(part 2)
III The cause of Chinese urban poverty
At present, China is in the period of economic and social transition. Because of the restucture of industry, the reformation of economic and social security system, many economic, social contradictions appeared in Chinese society. And the vulnerable and deficiencies of Chinese social security safety net made it worse, so in just a few years, the group (made of the unemployed, laid-off workers, semi-production enterprises and the production of non-payment of pension for retirees) are developed rapidly. The population of urban poverty increased every year, the gap between the rich and the poor was widening.
IV The status quo of Chinese urban poverty
The poor urban residents have low incomes, low level of nutrition; wearing simple; in bad housing conditions. They even can't afford the lights at night. There are "three barriers" for them, which is related to medical insurance, children's education and the cost on Chinese New Year. Chinese Vice-Minister of the Ministry of Civil Affairs Yang Yanyin had made a speech, saying: "China objects to receive the low minimum payment is only an average of 8.6 U.S. dollars per person per month, or even in some areas, low target 1.4 U.S. dollars a month just to receive money, a 3 4.3 U.S. dollars per month on the minimum payment to rely on life. 60% of Chinese urban households in the low monthly minimum payments below 14.3 U.S. dollars, nearly 30% of households in low minimum monthly payments at 14.3 U.S. dollars to between 28.6 U.S. dollars, only 8.4% of households receive a monthly low of 28.6 U.S. dollars or more."
Summary of this step(part 3)
V The status quo of Indonesian urban poverty
Among those threatened by hunger, as many as 272,198 residents of Indonesia located in the most worrying situation. From that amount, as many as 50,333 came from West Java, in which 10,430 people live in Bandung District and 15,334 people living in Garut regency. They are classified as threatened with famine situation is most worrying that the expenditure per kapitanya below Rp 15,000.00 a month．
VI The characteristics of urban poverty.
The vast majority of the poverty has low eduction and no technical ability. Most of their education are below middle school, And there are no technical expertise in them, their age are usually between 40-50. And in the poor families, most family members are out of employ, some of them even are disable and have no guarantee of medical expenses.
At present, "urban poverty" has become a constraint for economic development in developing countries. Living in poverty, the people can not guarantee their access to basic education, health care and so on. Undoubtedly it was an enormous obstacles to the development of the world and progress of the mankind.
Summary of this step
Poor people in Wuhan
form the magazine <Journal of Wuhan>
The reason of urban poverty
Standards of poor people
http://www.windbook.cn/jingjixue/industry/200801/jingjixue_1450.html br /
The proportion of poor population ranking related to Chinese