Summarization of Research Project
After six weeks' research, we have drawn our conclusion finally. The file is the summarization of our project.
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Summarization of Our Research Project(1)
The whole process of our research subject, from only superficial feeling of hunger and poverty, then self-experiencing poverty and analyzing the origin of urban poverty to thinking about how to solve urban poverty problem finally, really gained insight into poverty, especially “urban poverty”, and hungry.
Poverty and hungry problem is still widespread around the world.
The statistics of World Bank issued in October 1999 shows there were 2.8 billion people living with daily expenses under 2 dollars and 1.2 billion living with daily expenses less than 1 dollar out of 6 billion of total world population. In China, 212 million people live with daily expenses under 2 dollars and 700 million live with daily expenses less than 1 dollar, which jointly take 50% of this country’s total population. In Indonesia, 15.2% of its total population lives with daily expenses less than 1 dollar and 66.1% lives under 2 dollars. Figures released in August, 2008 by the US Census Bureau showed that 12.5 percent of Americans, or 37.3 million people, were living in poverty in 2007, up from 36.5 million in 2006. Some 7.6 million American families, or 9.8 percent of the total, were living in poverty. Above figures tell that poverty problem is significant to developed countries, like the U.S., and still less of developing countries like China and Indonesia who suffered severe poverty problem. Hence, U.N. has clearly declared to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the year of 2015 in Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) issued in 2008.
Summarization of Our Research Project(2)
Poverty and hunger is right beside us.
With the continuing of our research subject, especially after we self-experienced hunger and poverty, it is felt that even in modernized cities, poverty problem still existed and get more significant.
Wuhan City we are living in for example, there are 8 million urban residents including 640 million people living in poverty and 289 thousand living in extreme poverty (namely low incomer enjoying living allowance), which takes 8% and 3.6% of total population of Wuhan city respectively. And, in Western Java where our friend Halim lives, there are 435 million people which take 18.4% of Indonesia total population. Most of those people living in poverty can not guarantee the basic living condition of themselves. They are let alone acquiring rights of basic education, medical care and etc.
Summarization of Our Research Project(3)
The poor living environment and living condition evoked our thinking of what is the origin of urban poverty problem?
There are so many similar factors led to urban poverty, such as social background (economical revolution), individual restriction of people living in poverty (low educational level, without technical skill, disease and etc.), natural disaster and etc. to China and Indonesia, both are developing countries.
Large numbers of specialists thought the more significant urban poverty problem will not only restrict social and national economic development, and will lead to series of social problems. Zhao Xizhong, the deputy to the national people's congress of China, said: comparing to the rural poverty, it is no deadline of land security for urban people living in the poverty, which means extreme poverty. Without further policy favored, urban people living in poverty will be the most impoverished disadvantaged groups. Member of the Provincial Committee of CPPCC of Hunan, Guo Jinyun, said if the government failed to assist those urban people living in poverty to be well being rapidly, the phenomena of security situation deterioration and business depression will be outstanding in inhabit area where those poor people live and consequently rises series of social problems like collective violence and rampant crime.
Summarization of Our Research Project(4)
Solving urban poverty is extremely urgent
For better help to our city solving urban poverty problem, we visited residential area, charitable organizations, schools and low income families. We also interview Ms. Liu who lives in poverty, our classmate Fang Lei and Zhang Jun, responsible personnel of residential area and charitable organizations, and our Principal.
We have a basic understanding of current imposing poverty alleviation aid policies through various interviews. Thus set up the minimum living standard security system, endowment insurance system, unemployment insurance system, national wide medical insurance system and small venture capital fund and etc. What Indonesian do is basic living allowance and employment assistance, cash assistance, loan fore small enterprise, preferential bank rate and etc.
As per interviewee’s response, they are satisfied with government’s assistance up to now whereas anticipate upgraded assistance level and diversified help channels.
Honestly, distance is obvious between developed countries, like U.S., U.K., etc, and developing countries, such as China, Indonesia, etc, on solving urban poverty problem. For example, U.K. has legislated dedicated law to set up poverty assistance system which adopts tax income to help people living in poverty as long as 1940s and poverty problem has been listed into social welfare policy of America since 1960s, which all reflected the importance attached by those governments. So, our government could reference to the proved methods of developed countries when preparing relevant assistance policies.
Summarization of Our Research Project(5)
In the last couple of years, Chinese government did a lot to solve poverty problem and received notable achievements. Development Report of China 2007 set ‘Eradicate Poverty with Development’ as the theme and evaluated the anti-poverty history and current status from different angles. The report analyzes that the poverty rate of China sharply decreased from 64% to 10% from 1981 to 2004 and the reduced impoverished people occupied 81% of the total population of Eastern Asian countries. If the same poverty definition standard adopted, the Chinese occurrence rate of poverty in 1981 is 23.4% higher than world average rate whereas this figure is 4.5% lower than world average rate in 2001. Development Report of China 2008-2009 further advocated establishing “national shared social welfare system based on development” which declared Chinese government’s faith and determination to solve poverty problem.
By considering the China’s actual condition, the ideal poverty eradication mode is ‘mainly driven by government activities and encourage the participation of social resource including NGO to realize inter-supplement and interdependent operation mode’. Under such mode, government will keep optimizing existed security system and emphasis on both living security and facilitating employment. In a short word, solving poverty problem requires resultant force of the society and the participation of everyone.
Summarization of Our Research Project(6)
First of all, we should work on the root of this problem, just as Chinese proverb said:” Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime. “. The government could cooperate with NGOs to offer some professional training program free of charge, create new working opportunities and positions as well as establish employment agency system.
Secondly, the government should adjust taxation policy actively with an aim of narrowing wealth gap by increasing tax of high incomer and lower or lift tax opposed on low incomer.
And, the social resource should be gathered to offer equal opportunities for the people living in poverty to enjoy education and medical care
At last, all the government staff concerning poverty relief should give more care to the people in need and keep smile during service activities. As for individuals, we can be volunteers of residential area and charitable organizations to help impoverished families solve daily life problems in spare times.
When reference files were read and this research subject was done, our tensed feeling was gradually composed and some warm feeling came up now. We deeply felt that this world and government did not choose to ignore those people living in poverty but keep thinking how to solve poverty problem efficiently. What about us? What shall we do? Our answer is to open our philanthropic heart and evoke public attention of “Urban Poverty Problem”, to care about disadvantaged group around us, to help each people and family suffered by poverty walk out of difficulties and step forward to the well being life.
1、Re-Discuss on the Standard Defining Chinese Impoverished People
2、Millennium Development Goals
3、Highlights of Solving Urban Poverty and Perfect Social Security System Meeting
4、Urban People Living in Poverty is increasing and Poverty Problem is deteriorating Xinhua News Agency 2006-03-28
5、Development Report of China 2007
6、Development Report of China 2008-2009