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A kut is a ceremony where shamans channel Pyolsang, a spirit. The spirits can be traditional gods, saints, Christians such as Jesus and angels, or modern people such as Douglas MacArthur. The kut is used for different purposes such as a person's death and exorcism. During the kut, the people will pray to the spirits for help. A kut is done with props which may include; fruit, altars, paper flowers, and various costumes. A shaman will dress up in costumes representing the spirit that she is channeling. The shaman will then explain the spirit's message. This connects to shamanism because shamans communicate to the spirit for help.
A gut is a rite in which the shaman sacrifices to the spirits by singing and dancing. The three elements of a gut are when the spirits are the object of folk beliefs, the believers pray to the spirits, and the shamans meditate between the spirit and the believers. The three major forms of guts are naerimgut, dodang- gut, and ssitgimgut.
Naerimgut is a ritual where someone is possessed by a spirit and becomes a shaman. The person is supposed to suffer from sinbyeong, spirit sickness that gives you loss of appetite, insomnia, and hallucinations. It has the function of curing the sinbyeong and introducing the new shaman.
Dodang- gut is a ritual performed once a year in the spring or autumn. In the ritual the shaman wish for good fortune of the village. One distinguishing point of the dodanggut is that compared to a rite called dong- je, the dodanggut gives important roles to the sorceresses.
Ssitgimgut is a ritual that cleans the spirit in a person. Koreans believed that when a person dies, their entrance to the world of the dead stops time because of their badness in the spirit. The ssitgimgut purifies the badness in the spirit.
The significant ceremonies of Korean Confucianism are ceremonies that celebrate marriage, death, coming of age, and the anniversary of the death of the ancestors. Funerals have the greatest effect on the lives of people. The funerals help people express their most inner feelings. It depends on the degree of a close and loving relationship between the living and the deceased. This connects to Confucianism because people celebrated about something that affected their lives.
The three religions have all been used by the Koreans. Korean Shamanism came from the Siberian traditions. Instead of traveling to other places, Korean shamans practice channeling and spirit possession. Through time, it combines with other religions such as Buddhism, Taoism, and Christianity. Korean Buddhism was adopted by the Gorguryeo kingdom. Every king in the Gorguryeo kingdom respect Buddhism, making a Buddhist golden age. But in the late Gorguryeo period, an anti- Buddhism was developed. Monks abused their power and was involved with politics. When the Gorguryeo kingdom fell, the Joseon kingdom took over. Anti- Buddhism ripened in the Joseon period. Monks were allowed to enter the capital and were allowed to hold ceremonies for the success of large constructions. Korean Confucianism was adopted by the Baekje kingdom and introduced by the Gorguryeo kingdom. In the Joseon kingdom, Neo- Confucianism was developed. It was accepted by the Silla kingdom.| Home Page | Traditional Lifestyle | Ingenious Inventions | Bibliography |