What can you tell us about the effects of nicotine upon the young organism? Why do teen-agers resort to this “pleasure” – vice? What must the parents and educators to in this matter?
Smoking is the most dangerous toxicomania, by its mass character. In a cigarette’s smoke exist over 100 chemicals, the most important of them being nicotine, carbon oxides, hydrocarbons that can result in cancer. Nicotine acts upon the central nervous system, the sympathetic ganglions and the parasympathetic ganglions, first determining stimulation, and then inhibition. Adrenaline is produce by secretion. At the digestive system, it decreases appetite and salivary secretion, and raises gastric acidity. The more someone starts smoking from a younger age, the more the frequency of inflammation of the stomach and gastric ulcer rises.
What are the short term and long term effects of the use of alcohol by children and teenagers? Are there certain connections between this vice and juvenile delinquency? Who should track down this vice?
At a pulmonary level, nicotine slows down the ciliary activity of the epithelial cells from the respiratory ways, the elimination of mucus becoming harder. In time, the brachia’s lumen gets thinner and so, cough appears, with difficulties expectorating.
Smoking can cause bronchi-pulmonary cancer, chronic bronchial catarrh and pulmonary emphysema. One can start smoking out of curiosity and imitational spirit, characteristic for children. Later on, it becomes a way of relaxing. The prevention of smoking program is complex and implies difficulties in reaching its purpose. A child must be educated from the first years of school and maintained. Children must be informed upon the risks. The educators and parents must be examples, if not by not smoking, at least by avoiding doing so in front of them.
In our country, the alcoholic toxicomania is an exceptional phenomenon for the pupils and students.
What are the main health problems the teenagers of the 21th century face?
Alcohol causes enzymatic modifications in the gastric mucous membrane, decreases the capacity of absorbing nutritive substances, of the B and C vitamins. At a hepatic level, it is cause for hepatic cirrhosis. The prolonged consume of alcohol is a source for cholesterol growth, sclerosis, memory loss, adaptability difficulties and irritability, it decreases the capacity of ferrum to fix on the figurate elements of the blood, leucocytes’ mobility and the general immunity system and it influences procreation, leading to descendants with decreased genetic potential. Young organisms present heart and endocrine problems, impulsivity and poor school performances.
Thirty to sixty per cent of the criminal children come from families of alcoholics and ninety per cent of the children court files are caused by alcohol.
In the fight against alcohol, the school doctor has the responsibility to educate, prevent but also notice alcohol consumption.
OMS and UNESCO have counted a total of fifteen per cent of mental diseases at the initial population of the globe. They emphasize the role of the stress factors from today’s society. Character and behavior disorders seen at home or at school may reach the severe form of juvenile delinquency.
And what can you tell us about a teenager’s rest time?
Some elements which promote delinquency are: cinematography, television or an unsuitable family environment. To cultivate artistic aptitudes, professional and scholar orientation are ways to fight adaptation disorders.
The incorrect position while at school or doing homework often causes back problems. The low amount of ferrum causes anemia and the lack of calcium and magnesium lead to spasmophilia. Irregular meals cause diseases such as ulcer, gastritis.
The school schedule in the course of a week must respect the effort curve so that students can adapt. The subjects with a higher difficulty rate should be fixed in the middle of the week when the student’s efficiency is maximum. Teachers should take into consideration the time it takes for a student to prepare for the lessons, the extracurricular activities and the time for sleep and rest.
Physiological rates for night sleep are established to 12 hours at the age of 7, 11 hours at the age of 10, and 8 hours at the age of 18.
Research conducted in our country show that, for a great part of the students, night sleep is low, especially for the older ones. The causes are, in part, the big quantity of information that determine raising the time for preparing for lessons at home, and, on the other side, spending more time by playing videogames, or watching TV.
Tibeica Silvia Niculina, Specialist Doctor in Pediatric and General Medicine