"An ecosystem, a contraction of "ecological" and
"system", refers to the collection of components and processes that
comprise, and govern the behavior of, some defined subset of the biosphere. The
term is generally understood to refer to all biotic and abiotic
components, and their interactions with each other, in some defined area, with
no conceptual restrictions on how large or small that area can be."
"When you ask Rosemary why she first volunteered at the
An ecosystem consists of the
biological community that occurs in some locale, and the physical and chemical
factors that make up its non-living or abiotic
environment. There are many examples of ecosystems -- a pond, a forest, an
estuary, a grassland. The boundaries are not fixed in
any objective way, although sometimes they seem obvious, as with the shoreline
of a small pond. Usually the boundaries of an ecosystem are chosen for
practical reasons having to do with the goals of the particular study.
The study of ecosystems mainly consists of the study of certain processes that link the living, or biotic, components to the non-living, or abiotic, components. Energy transformations and biogeochemical cycling are the main processes that comprise the field of ecosystem ecology. As we learned earlier, ecology generally is defined as the interactions of organisms with one another and with the environment in which they occur. We can study ecology at the level of the individual, the population, the community, and the ecosystem.
Studies of individuals are concerned mostly about physiology, reproduction, development or behavior, and studies of populations usually focus on the habitat and resource needs of individual species, their group behaviors, population growth, and what limits their abundance or causes extinction. Studies of communities examine how populations of many species interact with one another, such as predators and their prey, or competitors that share common needs or resources.
In ecosystem ecology we put all of this together and, insofar as we can, we try to understand how the system operates as a whole. This means that, rather than worrying mainly about particular species, we try to focus on major functional aspects of the system. These functional aspects include such things as the amount of energy that is produced by photosynthesis, how energy or materials flow along the many steps in a food chain.
are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment. Abiotic phenomena underlie all of biology, but at the same
time both are better forgotten in the direct analysis of life as such. More
generally, the sciences concentrated on lower level explanation are better
forgotten when dealing with higher level phenomena. This is not true, abiotic factors, while generally downplayed, can have
enormous impact on evolution.
From the viewpoint of biology, abiotic influences may be classified as light or more generally radiation, temperature, water, the chemical surrounding composed of the terrestrial atmospheric gases, as well as the surroundings composed by the solid matter at the ground. The macroscopic climate often influences each of the above. Not to mention pressure and even sound waves if working with marine, or deep underground, biome.
Those underlying factors affect different plants, animals and fungi to different extents. Some plants are mostly water starved, so humidicity plays a larger role in their biology. Archaebacteria require very high temperatures, or pressures, or unusual concentrations of chemical substances such as sulfur, because of their specialization into extreme conditions. Certain fungi have evolved to survive mostly at the temperature, the humidity, and stability.
Biotic components are the living things that shape an ecosystem.
They are, in entirety, anything that affects a living organism that is itself
alive. Those things include animals which consume the organism in question, and
the living food that the organism consumes. As opposed to abiotic
components ,i.e, non-living
components of an environment,(temperature, light, moisture, air currents,
etc.), biotic components are the living components of an environment, such as
predators and prey.
For example, if one were to examine a tundra ecosystem for biotic and abiotic components, one would observe things like the extreme temperatures of the day and night, the fast winds, the heavy amount of sunlight, and scarcity of water as abiotic (or non-living components) in the environment. One would observe that for a quail living in the desert, living elements like the quail's prey (insects, seeds, etc.) and predators (coyotes, sparrow hawk, gold eagles, etc.) make up the biotic components of the quail's environment.
To protect our environment the best way is to keep our surroundings clen,by planting trees,by throwing the waste disposal in the correct disposal place by not throwing them on the road and in the rivers and by many other ways.To promote this to other people WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY is celebrated.We don't just choose organics for our health, we do it for our Environment and our future. World Environment Day helps us remember to do something extra to protect the world in which we live for a healthier tomorrow. We each make a difference and it is incumbent upon each of us to learn an issue that impacts our environment and take even a little step to correct it. Even when it seems that you are the only one, know there are others, and yes, it will work because Together We Can make a difference. Choose companies that don't pollute. Choose Organic foods over conventional. Choose gentler and safer cleaning products. Create a lush lawn without toxic chemicals. And of course, share the time with your family to teach your children the importance of protecting our environment and their future.
1. Species coexistence depends on the net effect of interacting species, representing the sum of multiple interaction components that may act simultaneously and vary independently depending on ambient environmental conditions. Consequently, for a comprehensive understanding of the compound nature of species interactions and coexistence, a mechanistic approach that allows a separate evaluation of each interaction component is required.
2. Two sessile filter-feeders, the goose barnacle Capitulum mitella and the mussel Septifer virgatus, coexist on
moderately wave-exposed rocky shores in south-western
3. In order to quantify the bidirectional abiotic, biotic and net effects, a series of experimental manipulations was conducted involving the use of living neighbours with both abiotic and biotic effects, and artificial mimics to simulate abiotic effects without biotic effects.
4. Capitulum had strong positive abiotic effects on the mussel survivorship in most experimental periods, while the biotic effect was negligible or weakly negative, suggesting that the net effect of Capitulum on mussel survival was largely attributable to the abiotic effect. In contrast, a significantly negative biotic effect on the mussel growth rate was always present, though this was cancelled out by the larger, positive abiotic effect. In the case of Septifer, its abiotic and biotic effects on the survivorship of goose barnacles were negligible, while those on the growth rate showed temporal variation.
5. With respect to the relationship between species interaction and environmental conditions, the strength of abiotic facilitative effect of Capitulum on mussel survival increased with increasing abiotic stress, while the strength of biotic effect was negligible or weakly negative. As regards the effects of mussels on goose barnacles, our study indicated no obvious relationship. These results point to the importance of decomposing interaction for an accurate, mechanistic understanding of species relations and coexistence.
Species are commonly segregated along gradients of microclimate
and vegetation. I explore the question of whether segregation is the result of
microhabitat partitioning (biotic effects) or choice of differing microclimates
(abiotic effects). I explored this question for four
ground-nesting bird species that are segregated along a microclimate and
vegetation gradient in