A WORLD OF WORKS

 ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT PROJECTS

## ELECTRICITY

We do works with circuits which are connected with electrycity.
A flash of lightning is striking evidence of the invisible energy is called ELECTRYCITY. This energy is produced by the movements of electrons. Tiny particles found in ahoms of matter.
When electric charge builds upin one place is called static electrycity.

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT:-
The path around which current electricity flows is called circuit.

ELECTRONICS:-
The electronics revolution is rapidly changing our world: whether we are at home, at work or at shopping, we are surrounded by electronic machines and equipment.

We have also made things wtih circuits and electricity such as:-
1. Dancing Lights.
2. Switch Board.
3. Right and Left Turn Lights

## Electric Circuits in school level

Electric circuits are done under the guidance of our WE teacher MR.Toleti Ravi Kumar.Its so extraordinary and makes us feel proud that circuits taught to engineering students are taught to us in our school life.This circuits are very easy to make and are very useful if we are opting for engineering in d near future or else knowing the circuits dont do us any harm

## ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

Materials required -

1.L.E.D.s- 3

2. IC- 555

3.IC bed- 1

4.Wires

5.Capacitor (10 microferades)- 1

6.Resistors:- 220 ohms, 10 kilo ohms and 33 kilo ohms

7.Printed Circuit Board(PCB)- small

8.Soldering Wires

9.Switch- 2 pole

HOW IT WORKS

This is a timer circuit based on 555 IC. This is a 8 pin IC. Pin no. 3 is output. Pin no. 1 and 2 are power supply.
There are 2 LED's at the output controlled by a switch which gives right and left indication.
This works on 9 volt DC.
This is the circuit board used in automobiles for right and left indication
We are very lucky to get to know regarding this circuit.

## ELECTRONIC TURN INDICATOR

The turn indicator operates from a low power supply 45 V and is suitable for mounting at the rear of bicycle. This circuit also functions as a stable multi vibrator. The times IC drives the bulb when pin 3 is at low state. The lights are off when this pin is at high state. The switch SI is of the centre of variety where it is put into either of its ON position (left or right) the square waves produced by the timer to the appropriate lamp which keeps flashing accordingly. The second pole of SI applies power to the IC. Whenever it is moved to the left or right the LED shown in the figure gives an indicator to the bicycle rider that the times is ON. The entire circuit together with the battery should be mounted suitably on the handle bars or somewhere on the main frame.

## PHASE TESTER

We know that always there are two wires in any electric circuit, and also that two wires come to the electrical installation from the electric poles. Out of these two wires one is called the Phase wire and the other one is called the Neutral wire. It is very important to know the difference of them and also to recognize them.

To separate and distinguish the phase and the neutral the equipment used is called the Phase Tester. There is a neon lamp (indicator) and a resistance in it. One end of the Phase Tester is of the Screw Driver type, and is applied at the point, where the phase is to be checked. The top end is of round shape with a metal cap, through which the earth is extended by means of touching it by a finger. When it is to be determined whether the wire under testing is a phase or a neutral, the wire is touched by the screw driver ended the top end cap be touched by the finger. If the indicator gets glowing, the wire is a phase otherwise neutral.

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

Materials required -

1.L.E.D.s- 3
2. IC- 555
3.IC bed- 1
4.Wires
5.Capacitor (10 microferades)- 1
6.Resistors:- 220 ohms, 10 kilo ohms and 33 kilo ohms
7.Printed Circuit Board(PCB)- small
8.Soldering Wires
9.Switch- 2 pole

HOW IT WORKS

This is a timer circuit based on 555 IC. This is a 8 pin IC. Pin no. 3 is output. Pin no. 1 and 2 are power supply. There are 2 LED's at the output controlled by a switch which gives right and left indication. This works on 9 volt DC. This is the circuit board used in automobiles for right and left indication.

## Components required: - 1. I.C 8051 (20 pins) 2. Resistors (13 kilo ohms)- 8 3. Capacitors (10 microferades)- 2 4. Switches- 5 5. Power Connector- 5 6. Power Regulator 7. Printed Circuit Board 8. Lead 9. Crystal 10. Diode 11. LED's- 8 HOW IT WORKS The IC 8051 is a programmable IC which can be programmed using assemble language and all the LED's can be controlled by this programme. We have five modes to write the programme to the IC.

SOLDERING IRON

This electrical instrument is the most important tool for the persons who work on electrical and electronic appliances.

MATERIALS
1.Main lead
2.Handle
3.Element
4.Bit

The most important part of the soldering iron is its element.This element is covered by a cover.This cover is known as element cover.

ELEMENTS OF SOLDERING IRON-
Soldering irons are of different voltage power.Mostly soldering iron of 10watts, 15watts, 25watts, 35watts and 40watts are used.
The heat from the iron increases with voltage.
If element burns out, then other element of the same voltage power can be used.

The second important part of the soldering iron is the bit.
The bit of soldering iron is made up of copperthis is also filled according to the voltage.The bit used is of same voltage as of the voltage of element.

When an element of the soldering iron burns out it has to be replaced. For this first of all the handle is opened to remove the main lead and wires of the element are made loss. Now nut on the element cover is opened to remove half of the element cover. Now the element is fitted in the same way as of the old element. In the end, bit is placed between the two elements and then cover of the element is tightened.
After fitting new element in the soldering iron, before giving supply to it the resistance must be checked on the two end ends of the main lead. In the 10 watts soldering iron this resistance must be about 1 K ohm. If the resistance between the two ends of the main lead is zero then it main lead is short. In this case remove the main lead and check the resistance of element.

## SERIES BULB

MATERIALS REQUIRED TO MAKE SERIES BULB:

1.Battery
2.6.2 volt miniature bulb.
3. Screw typed=40 numbers
4.Twisters wire-5 metre (m)
5.Soldering lead=10 gram (gm)
6.Plastic cups to cover soldering lead=40 mm
7.2-pin plug

PROCEDURE:
Cut 6 inches wire pieces.

Remove insulation at both ends for 2 mm.

We need 40 such pieces.

Bulb is having two connections, one at the bottom of the bulb and another to its side.

Now, solder one end of the wire to the bottom of the bulb and the other end of the wire to the side of the next bulb.

Like that solder all the 40 bulbs.

Now, the mains wires are connected one form the first bulb and the other from the last bulb.

These two lines are called as phase and neutral.

The power goes from phase which goes to the first bulb and series reaches the last bulb.

From there it goes back to the socket via neutral.

Now, we have (220 volt) in the phase which is divided by 40 bulbs and each bulb gets 6 volts.

When we connect the supply this all bulbs will glow at a time.

This experiment teaches the student, how the voltage is distributed equally.

## Dancing lights

The material required :

1.Transistors - bel 147 - 2 nos.,

2.Capacitors - 1000micro farads - 2 nos.,

3.Resistors - 220 ohms,

4.33 kilo ohms, 10 kilo ohms.

5.Printed circuit board,

6.Leds - 6 nos.,

7.Electronic wires. etc.

1.The circuit works on the basis of Multivibrator and the Leds work on the switching on and off.

2.Each time one transistor which acts as a switch, and three Leds at a time will be on.

3.And this switching of these lights three at a time, will look as if they are dancing.

4.The students learn soldering of components, recognising electronic components, placing the components on the Pcb and fault finding and testing of the circuits.

5.The function of each component is understood. we have all these components in physics. so the student gets advanced practical knowledge.

## Switch board

This project is to make the extension box for the electrical points.

MATERIALS REQUIRED

A three pin socket,
A board to fix the switches and sockets.
Five Amperes socket(6"x4")
Five Amperes switch
A three core wire
3-pin top

TOOLS REQUIRED

Tester,
Screw drivier,
Cutting machine,
Drilling machine etc.

PROCEDURE

Get the switch board cut to put the sockets and switches.

One socket and switch side by side.

On the side of the switch board make a hole for the cable.

At one end of the cable fix the three-pin top.

Other end is connected inside the switch board.

The cable has three wires-black, red and green.

The green is connected to the socket at the big pin.

Red goes to the switch and from there it goes to the socket.

The black which is called as neutral, is connected directly to the socket.

## THERMOSTAT

The thermostat has two strips of metal (Bimetallic Strip).Out of these one is fixed and second is movable according to the temperature. In the normal condition both the strips of thermostat are joined together perfectly. Strips can be tied from one side with the help of the screw. On the increase of temperature one strip bends and its contact with the other strip breaks. But as soon as it comes to its original shape after cooling it makes contact with the first strip. Movable strip’s bending can be controlled by a screw. The upper portion of the screw is connected to the knob on which the types of the clothes are written.

When the temperature increases from the chosen temperature then the thermostat bends and the bulb of the iron stops glowing that is supply to the iron is cut off. After sometime when the temperature of iron comes in the required line then the bulb glows means the thermostat joins together again and the bulb glows means the supply of the iron becomes on. In this way, from the automatic iron we can get the required temperature. From this there is no possilbility remains of the burning of the clothes. For nylon, Terylene and silk clothes automatic iron must be always used because of these clothes very low temperature is required.

Element of automatic iron is of 750 watts. In the case burning of element of automatic iron it can be replaced. New element must be changed according to the size of the iron. The movable strip of the thermostat bends permanently due to its long time use. Permanent band can be removed giving it a slight push.