Cultural life, intellectual and scientific in Pharaonic Egypt
Houses: The ancient Egyptians built houses of brick, consisting of a single
storey or two, and the eternity and the doctrine of immortality made the
attention of the ancient Egyptians to build the graves as a house of eternity.
Cemeteries: Sculpture in the modern state veterans cemeteries in the rocks west
of the mountains "Theba" ( "the Valley of the Kings").
The cemetery was the first hole is placed under the surface of the Earth where
the Dead, and covered with dust. Evolved into the pit room or two rooms beneath
the surface of the earth are built from the brick and has a lead it. And then
evolved into a room under the terrace above the Earth's surface on the surface
of the earth. And then evolved into a pyramid is made up of several terraces,
each smaller than those below it. And then evolved into a full pyramid.
Temples are divided into two
The great temples: the worship of the god in the "Theba" ( "Amon"),
including the Temple of Karnak, which is the largest house of worship in
the world and the Temple of Luxor.
Smaller temples: the funeral to be held by the practice of religion and the
Pharaoh's funeral rites, especially priests and the people of Pharaoh, for
example, the Temple of "Hatshepsut" "Maritime monastery," and Temple "Alrmseyoum"
built by "Ramses
sculpture, painting and photography
Ancient Egyptians excelled in the sculpture Obelisks high altitude, and in
drawing and engraving, and photography on the walls and then colors.
Obelisk of Luxor, which offered by Egypt to France now stands proud in
the middle of the Place de la Concorde in the heart of Paris to
witness the magnificence of the pharaohs
It is not reasonable to talk about writing without mentioning papyrus used by
ancient Egyptians since the dawn of history, we have found, however, a freak
hail package written in a cemetery dating back to around the year 300 BC. M.
Since ancient times, Egypt has also begun to export to countries papyrus near the
civilized world, where memories of Amoun around 1100 BC. M. That during
his trip to take with him Phenicia about 500 parcels a freak hail. The documents
assure us that the Middle East has been used ink and papyrus instead of
cuneiform writing on clay, starting from the eighth century BC. M.
And bulrush grow in the south of the delta in the deep waters, along root more
than four arms, the leg of the triangle of height ten arms, with a crown of
little useless, and has no fruit. "
Papyrus used in the manufacture of small boats, limited to chains, ropes and
Egyptians first invented writing, before the era of reunification of the
country, helped to registration of the manifestations of their political,
religious, cultural and economic development, Through the pictures, each picture
shows a specific word, and called the writing of this "hieroglyphic," and was
used on the walls of temples, paintings and stone and wood, which is written
from top to bottom or vice versa, and from right to left or vice versa. This
hieroglyphic writing used in the registration of religious texts, and also known
as the "Bible Line".
Then a sort of simplified writing called "Alheiratiqic" (i.e., the line of the
clergy), and the books used in religious and literary texts in the era of the
Finally, finally appeared the writing (i.e. writing the People) that was used in
all aspects of life, and spread in the late-medieval, and modern Ptolemaic and
. Types of Ancient Egyptian literature
Ancient Egyptians recorded literature, which portrayed all aspects of life, such
Religious literature: This deals with
religious beliefs, theories about life after death, eternity, creation of the
universe, gods and myths of religion. Such as: the texts of the pyramid, "Unas"
in "Sakara", which recorded some of the walls of the pyramids to be of
assistance to the dead in the other life, a book of the dead is a religious
writings written on papyrus and placed with the dead to help him and protect him
from hell, as well as religious myths such as "Isis" and "Osiris" which
illustrates the conflict of right and justice with injustice and falsehood.
literature: the ancient Egyptians excelled in writing stories like the story
of "Snohy" and the fictional story of the drowned navigator.
Literature of advice: for example, proverbs, advice and tips, such as
wills Hakim "Betah Hotob" in old Kingdom, and wise advice, "Any"
in Modern Kingdom.
Literature and praise: The aim of the glorification of heroic kings and
to pay tribute to them and their favour.
story (Story of the literature, a true story) .
The story revolves around the leader "Snohy" Army Commander King "Omnmhat
I" in the middle, have fled when he heard the death of the King, took the
crown prince "Snosart" The verdict was "Snohy" enemy. The "Snohy"
to one of the Sheikhs of the Bedouin in Palestine, married eldest daughter,
enraging the neighbours, "Snohy," A boy asked of them fighting, "Snohy"
win and spent it.
Under the "Snohy" in Palestine until it became a sheikh, and the longing
for the homeland, Pharaoh of Egypt, to become aware of the Pharaoh "Snohy,"
and had to honor him in the minors
The drowned Navigator
(Story of the literature, a Fictional story)
Waterman tells the story of the drowned navigator that survived a severe storm
sank the ship, got on the island, and the search for food, a snake arm length
300, narrated what happened to him, the Egyptian and lived on the island a
month, and with an Egyptian boat, carry it to Egypt, after this and arduous
journey from the horrors.
The myth of Isis and Osiris.
According to the myth: the god of the earth and the sky god of the couple were
born two sons, namely: "Osiris," and "set", and two daughters are the "Isis"
and "Naftis," married "Osiris" sister of "Isis", and
married a "six" of his sister, "Naftis "The rule of" Osiris "a
fair verdict, I love people, and the" set "was frowned upon evil, a hatred for
his brother" Osiris "and take the conspiracies plotted to get rid of it.
"Set" has invited the party to the gods, including "Osiris," and
said, "set" to the guests that he had prepared a coffin adorned with
precious stones, will be of the size of his body, and the "set" was the
coffin-making to suit the body of his brother, "Osiris."
Each one sleeps in the coffin to see if the size of his body to win, even the
role of "Osiris," and when he entered "Osiris," quick "set"
and his coffin, locked it, and threw him into the Nile, and learned to "Isis",
including happened to her husband, deeply saddened and are looking for, even
found the place and took the body with them to Egypt where he has hidden in the
jungles of the Delta, and are praying to God that is her husband's life.
God responded to the call of "Isis", and life returned to "Osiris",
but "set" the evil was able to find his brother, and tore his body and
delivered their parts in the various regions of Egypt.
But the "Horus" son of "Isis" revenge of the "set" and
fought him and defeated him, but "Osiris" has become the god of the dead
after he refused to return to this world of evil.
Recent disclosures have proved that the ancient Egyptians had science on the
basis of the experience and expertise, and systematic research, science is the
most important of these:
Astronomy and calculation of time
The religion and the ancient Egyptian's life coupled with the greatest impact in
the development of astronomy, and the priests, "Heliopolis" was the first
to obtain a study of astronomy, and have come to know many of the positions of
the stars and planets. The ancient Egyptians invented the solar calendar (based
on the sun), and divided the year into twelve months, each of thirty days,
bringing the number of days, 360 days a year, leaving another five days each
year, as General chapters divided into three chapters, and also the
machines used to measure the hours of day and night.
Engineering and mathematics
Ancient Egyptians know mathematics and its rules, they used collection,
division, multiplication and reached to know fractions, anyone can be
estimated that the implementation of pyramids was based on the principles of
engineering. The ancient Egyptians knew the area of the square and rectangle,
and used the account to know the area of agricultural land and crop assessment,
the degree of increase or decrease in the Nile River, and the registration of
the salaries of civil servants and soldiers. The units of measurement of land
area foot and arm.
Ancient Egyptians knew a lot about
the human body, diseases and methods of
treatment, there has been medical doctors and specialists for internal diseases,
eye and dental surgery. The ancient Egyptians excelled in mummification, and not
evidence of their skills to some of the bodies of the pharaohs are still retains
the Appearance and shapes ,despite the passage of thousands of years.
Among the most famous Egyptian doctors "Iimahotb" who lived in the family
The Egyptians knew the first of
chemistry, industry in various colours and dyes,
also excelled in the manufacture of drugs and medicines from the grass plant, as
well as in the preparation of the necessary chemicals for mummification.