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Classification of Ayurvedic Medicine
Various Ayurvedic medicines were classified into several groups by different authors of Ayurvedic books. These are as follows:-
CHARAKA’S CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS (50 GROUPS)
1. Promoting Life. (Jeevaneeyam.)
2. Promoting Growth (Brimhaneeyam) .
3. Reducing Growth (Lekhaniyam)
4. Promoting Evacuation (Bhedaneeyam.)
6. Promoting Appetite (Deepaneeyam.)
7. Promoting Strength (Balyam.)
8. Promoting Complexion (Varnyam.)
9. Promoting Voice (Kantyam.)
10. Promoting Happy Feeling (Hridyam.)
11. Destroying Satisfaction (Triptighnam.)
12. Destroying Piles (Arsoghnam.)
13. Destroying Skin Diseases (Kustaghnam.)
14. Destroying Itching (Kandughnam.)
15. Destroying Parasites (Krimighnam.)
16. Destroying Poison (Vishaghnam.)
17. Producing Milk (Sthanyajananam.)
18. Purifying Milk (Sthanysodhanam.)
19. Producing Sperm (Sukrajananam.)
20. Purifying Sperm (Sukrasodhanam.)
21. Promoting Lubrication (Snehopagam.)
22. Promoting Sweat (Swedopagam.)
23. Promoting Vomiting (Vamanopagam.)
24. Promoting Purgaiton (Virechanopagam.)
25. Useful for Non-oily Enemata (Aasthaapanopagam.)
26. Useful for Oily Enemata (Anuvaasanopagam.)
27. Purging Doshas in the Head. (Sirovirechaniyam.)
28. Controlling Vomitting. (Chardinigrahanam.)
29. Controlling Thirst. (Trishnaanigrahanam.)
30. Checking Hiccough (Hiccanigrahanam.)
31. Reducing Faecal Matter. (Purisha Sangrahaneeyam.)
32. Purifying Faecal Matter. (Purisha Virajaneeyam.)
33. Reducing Urine (Mutra Sangrahaneeyam.)
34. Purifying Urine (Mutra Virajaneeyam.)
35. Increasing Urine (Mutra virechaneeyam.)
36. Relieving Cough (Kaasa Hara.)
37. Relieving Dyspepsia (Swasahara.)
38. Relieving Swelling (Swayathuhara.)
39. Relieving Fever (Jwaraharam.)
40. Relieving Exhaustion (Sramaharam.) .
41. Relieving Burning Sensation (Daahaprasamanam.)
42. Relieving Cold (Seethaprasamanam.)
43. Relieving Rashes (Udardaprasamanam.)
44. Relieving bodily Pains (Angamardaprasamanam.)
45. Relieving Colic (Sulaprasamanam.)
46. Restoring Blood (Sonitaasthaapanam.)
47. Relieving Suffering (vedanaasthaapana.)
48. Restoring Consciousness (Prajaasthaapana.)
49. Fixing Pregnancy (Prajaasthaapana.)
50. Fixing Youthfulness (Vayasthapana.)
SUSHRUTA’S CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS (37 GROUPS)
1. Vidaarigandhaadi Gana
The Vidaarigandhaadigana counteracts Vaata and Pitta; it is useful in Sosha (emaciation), Gulma (tumour), Angamarda (bodily soreness), Oordhwaswaasa (a kind of Swaasa) and Kaasa (cough).
2. Aaragwadhaadi Gana
The Aaragwadhaadigana checks Kapha and Poison; it is also useful in Prameha, Kushta, Jwara, Vami (vomiting), Kandu (itching) and it purifies Vrana (Dushta).
3. Varunaadi Gana
This Varunaadigana checks Kapha and Medas; it is also useful in headache, Gulma, and Aabhyantara vidradhi (internal abscess).
5. Saalasaaraadi gana
This gana is very helpful in Kushta. It also acts as a curative in Prameha, Paandu (anaemia) and lessens Kapha and Medas.
6. Rodhraadi Gana
The Rodhraadigana lessens Medas and Kapha; it is curative of Yoni Dosha (disorders of Yoni); it is astringent (Stambhee), develops complexion (Varnya), and mitigates the poisons (Vishavinaasana).
7. Arkaadi Gana
The Arkaadigana checks Kapha, Medas and Visha; it is helpful also in Krimi, Kushta and is chiefly a purificator of Vranas (Viseshaat Vrana Sodhanah).
8. Surasaadi Gana
Suraasadigana checks Kapha and destroys Krimees (Parasites); it is also useful in cold, loss of appetite, hard breathing and cough; it purifies (Dushta) Vrana.
9. Mushkakaadi Gana
Mushkakaadigana reduces Medas and is useful in Sukradosha (impurity of Semen); it also acts as a curative in Prameha, Arsas, Paanduroga and Sarkara.
10. Pippalyaadi Gana
Pippalyaadigana reduces Kapha Dosha, cold (Pratisyaaya), Vaata, anorexia, Gulma and pain (Soola); it creates appetite (deepana) and digests (resolves) AamaDosha (Aama Paachana).
11. Elaadi Gana
Elaadigana checks Vasta and Kapha and Visha (Poison); it creates luster of the skin (
12. Vachaadi Gana
13. Haridraadi Gana
Both Vachaadigana and Haridraadigana purify the breast-milk, act as amelioratives (Samana) in Aamaateesaara; they are especially digestive of the Doshaas (Viseshaat Doshapaachanou).
14. Syaamaadi Gana
Syaamaadigana checks Gulma and Visha (poison), Aanaaha (distension of abdomen), Udara, and Udaavarta; it causes free evacuation of the bowels.
15. Brihatyaadi Gana
Brihatyaadigana is a digestive (Paachaneeya); it checks Vaata and Pitta. It is also beneficial in Arochaka (Anorexia) due to Kapha, Hridroga, Mootrakrichra (Dysuria) and a kind of pain during urination.
16. Patolaadi Gana
Patolaadigana cures Pitta, Kapha and Arochaka (anorexia); it allays Jwara; it is beneficial in Vranas, and cures vomiting, itching and Visha (poison).
17. Kaakolyaadi Gana
Kaakolyaadigana cures Pittasonita (Rakta vitiated by Pitta; or Pitta and Sonita) and Vaayu. It is Jeevana (increases vitality), Brimhana (promotes bodily growth), Vrishya (increases semen), and increases breast-milk and Kapha.
18. Ooshakaadi Gana
Ooshakaadigana allays Kapha and diminishes Medas; it acts as curative in Asmaree (stone), Sarkaraa (sand in urine), Mootrakrichchra and Gulma.
19. Saaribaadi Gana
Saaribaadigana allays thirst and Raktapitta. It is beneficial in Pittajwara and cures Daaha (burning sensation) especially.
20. Anjanaadi Gana
This Gana cures Raktapitta; it is beneficial in Visha (poisoning), and it allays internal burning sensation.
21. Parooshakaadi Gana
Parooshakaadigana cures Vaata and disordered urine; it is pleasant to take (Hridya); it allays thirst and creates appetite.
22. Priyangwaadi Gana
23. Ambashtaadi Gana
Both Priyangwaadi Gana and Ambashtaadi Gana are useful in Pakwaateesara. They cause Sandhaana (union of bones etc), are beneficial in Pitta and heal the ulcers (Vranaanaam chaapi Ropanou).
24. Nyagrodhaadi Gana
Nyagrodhaadigana is beneficial in the treatment of Vranas (Vranyah); it is astringent (Sangraahee); it is useful in fractures (Bhagna Saadhaka). Further, it allays Raktapitta (Haemorrhage) and Daaha (burning sensation); it reduces Medas (obesity) and it is useful in Yonidosha (Yonivvaapat).
25. Gudoochyaadi Gana
Gudoochyaadi gana checks all Jwaras (fevers and it increases appetite (Deepana). It allays’ Hrillaasa (nausea accompanied with hawking of mucous etc. from the mouth), Arochaka (Anorexia), Vami (Vomiting), thirst and burning sensation.
26. Utpalaadi Gana
Utpalaadigana allays Daaha (burning sensation), Pitta and Rakta, thirst, Visha (poisoning), Hridroga, Chardi (Vomiting) and Moorchaa (Syncope).
27. Mustaadi Gana
Mustakadi Gana reduces Kapha; it also cures Yonidosha and purifies breast-milk; it is digestive (Paachana).
It includes Hareetakee, Aamalaka and Vibheetaka. Thriphala reduces Kapha and Pitta; it is useful in Prameha, Kushta; it is beneficial to eyes; it creates appetite and is useful in Vishamajwara.
This is also called Tryooshanam and Vyosha. It reduces Kapha and Medas and is useful in Pramea, Kushta, Twagaamaya (Skin diseases); it creates appetite; it is useful in Gulma, Peenasa and Agnyalpataa (Poor digestion).
30. Aamalakyaadi Gana
This Aamalakyaadigana is useful in all jwaras (fevers) is beneficial to eyes, is an aphrodisiac and cures Kaphaarochaka (Anorexia due to Kapha).
31. Trapwaadi Gana
Trapwaadigana is useful in gara (poisoning usually through food), worms (Krimi), thirst, Visha, Hridroga Paandu and Prameha.
32. Laakshaadi Gana
Laakshaadi Gana is Kashaaya (astringent), bitter and sweet in taste; reduces ailments due to Kapha and Pitta; it is useful in Kushta and Krimi (worms); it also purifies Dushta vranas.
33. Kaneeya Panchamoola (or Hraswa Panchamoolam of Laghupanchamoola)
It includes Trikantaka (Gokshura), Brihatee, Kantakaari Prithakparnee and Vidaarigandhaa (Saalaparni).
Kaneeya Panchamoola is Kashaaya, Tikta and Madhura in Rasa (taste); it reduces Vaata and ameliorates Pitta; it is Brimhana (tissue building) and increases strength (Balavardhanah).
34. Mahaa Panchamoolam is bitter (tikta), checks Kapha and Vaata; it is Laghu in Paaka
It promotes appetite and it is
slightly sweet in Rasa (Taste).
It includes Kaneeya Panchamoola and Mahaa Panchamoola. Both the Panchamoolas when mixed are called Dashamoola.
Dashamoola (Gana) reduces Swaasa (hard breathing), it checks Kapha, Pitta and Vaayu; it digests Aama-Dosha and it is curative of all Jwaras (fevers).
36. Vallee Panchmoola
It includes Vallee Panchamoola and Kantaka Panchamoola. Both the ganas are beneficial in Raktapitta and are useful in three kinds of Sopha (Aama, Pachyamaana and Pakwa), Prameha and purify Sukra.
Laghupanchamoola and Mahaapanchamoola usually reduce Vaata; Trinapanchamoola reduces Pitta; the other two, namely, Valleepahchamoola and Kantaka Panchamoola, reduce Kapha.
It should be understood that the substances in the groups (Ganas) may be altered, or individually used and variously combined according to the Doshas or Dooshyas etc. existing individually or in various combinations in a person.
VAGBHATTA’S CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS (32 GROUPS)
1. Vamanaoushadhagana (Emetics)
Ameliorate Kapha Dosha.
8. Jeevaneeyaadi Gana
9. Vidaaryaadi Gana
The Vidaaryaadi gana is hridya (pleasing), Brimhana (tissue-builder), and it ameliorates Vaata and Pitta besides checking Sosha (wasting), Gulma (tumour), Angamarda (bodily soreness), Oordhwaswaasa (a kind of hard-breathing), and Kaasa (cough).
10. Saaribaadi Gana
Ameliorate Daaha (burning sensation), Pitta, Rakta (disorders of), thirst and Jwara (fever.)
11. Padmaakadi Gana
The ingredients of Padmakaadi gana increase the breast-milk, ameliorate the vitiated Pitta, cause satisfaction (Preenana), promote life (Jeevana) and build tissues (Brimhana); they are aphrodisiacs (Vrishya).
12. Parooshakaadi Gana
Ameliorates thirst, diseases pertaining to urine (Mootraamaya) and Vaata.
13. Anjanaadi Gana
Ameliorates Visha (poison), Antardaaha (internal burning sensation), and Pitta.
14. Patolaadi Gana
Checks Kapha, Pitta, Kushta, Jwara, Visha, Vami (Vomiting), Arochaka and Kaamalaa (Jaundice).
15. Gudoochyaadi Gana
Ameliorates Pitta, Kapha, Jwara, Vomiting, burning sensation, and thirst; it promotes appetite.
Checks vomiting. Kushta, Visha, Jwara, Kapha, itching and Prameha; it purifies Dushta Vrana.
17. Asanaadi Gana
Ameliorates Switra (leucoderma), Kushta, Kapha, Krimi (worms), Paanduroga, Prameha and reduces Medodosha (obesity).
18. Varanaadi Gana
Checks Kapha, Medas (fat), Poor digestion (Mandaagni), Vaata (vitiated downwards), headache, Gulma, Baahyavidradhi and Antarvidradhi).
19. Ooshakaadi Gana
Checks Mootrakrichra, Asma (calculus), Gulma, Medas (fat) and Kapha.
20. Veerataraadi Gana
Ameliorates diseases caused by vitiated Vaata; it is, further, beneficial in Asmaree (Caleulus), Sarkaraa (Sand in urine), Mootrakrichra (Dysuria), Mootraghaate (Dribbling of urine etc., and pain in urinary organs.
21. Rodhraadi Gana
Reduces fat, Kapha, Yonidosha (disorders of Yoni), and which is astringent, complexion giving and antipoisonous.
22. Arkaadi Gana
Reduces Kapha, Medas (fat) and poison; it ameliorates Krimi, and Kushta; it purifies Vranas (ulcers) especially.
23. Surasaadi Gana
Checks Kapha, Medas, Krimi, Pratisyaaya, Aruchi, (Anorexia), Swaasa (hard breathing), and Kaasa (cough) and which purifies the Vraas.
24. Mushkaakadi Gana
Checks Gulma, Prameha, Asmaree, Paanduroga, Medas, Arsas (Piles), Kapha and Sukradosha.
25. Vatsakaadi Gana
Checks Vasta, Kapha and Medas, Peenasa, Gulma, Jwara, Sools and Durnaama.
26. Vachaadi Gana
Both Vachaadigana and Haridraadigana check Aamaateesaara. They are also useful in Medas, excessive Kapha, Vaayu and impurities of breastmilk.
27. Privangwaadi Gana
28. Ambashtaadi Gana
Both Priyangwaadigana and Ambashtaadigana check Pakwaateesara; they are Sandhaaneeya (cause union of fractures etc.); they are beneficial in Pitta and cause healing of ulcers.
29. Mustaadi Gana
Curative of disorders of Vulva (Yoniroga) and breastmilk and are digestive of Malaas.
30. Nyagrodhaadi Gana
Helps to heal the Vranas, is astringent and useful in fractures (Bhagnasaadhanah); it also checks Medas, Pitta, Rakta, thirst, Daaha (burning sensation) and Yoniroga.
31. Elaadi Gana
Elaadigana reduces Vaata, Kapha and Visha (Poison); it develops complexion of the body; it also cures itching. Pitikaa (elevated swellings like abscesses etc.) and Kothas (red eruptions on skin).
32. Syaamnadi Gana
Checks Gulma, Visha (Poison), Aruchi (Anorexia), Kapha, Hridriga and Mootrakrichra (Dysuria).