This chart, based on the one found in "Gods, Goddesses and Monsters" shows the Roman gods and what they represent:
Jupiter - the king of all gods.
Juno - the queen of all gods.
Mars - the god of war.
Vesta - goddess of the hearth.
Apollo - the god of light, arts, and prophecy.
Bacchus - the god of wine and fertility.
Ceres - the goddess of agriculture.
Cupid and Venus - god/goddess of love.
Diana - goddess of the hunt.
Mercury - the messenger of the gods.
Minerva - goddess of wisdom and crafts.
Neptune - god of the sea.
Pluto/Dis - god of the underworld.
Vulcan - god of fire and forge.
Jupiter ruled the sky with an iron fist. His weapon was a lightning bolt, which made all the gods fear him. His Greek equivalent is Zeus.
Juno was Jupiter's wife. It was believed that all womae carried a spirit that watched over them, and this spirit was called a Juno. Her Greek equivalent is Hera.
Mars was a son of Jupiter. He was well respected by Romans as they had great military strength, and Mars was the god of war. His Greek equivalent is Ares.
Vesta was Jupiter's sister. She was symbolized with a flame. In Rome, people would through cakes into the fire as an offering to Vesta. Her Greek equivalent was Hestia.
Apollo was another son of Jupiter. He rode his chariot across the world, giving sunlight, as he was the god of sunlight. He was also the god of the sick, so people that were sick would pray to him to let them live. His Greek equivalent is also named Apollo.
Bacchus was yet another son of Jupiter, and was the god of wine, fertility, and theater. Therefore, plays in Rome were performed to his honor. Bacchus' Greek equivalent is Dionysos.
Ceres was the goddess of agriculture. She had a daughter named Proserpine, who was kidnapped by Pluto. She agreed to live 6 months with Pluto, her new husband, and six months with Ceres. Therefore, for 6 months of the year, no crops grow. This would be considered winter. Her Greek equivalent was Demeter.
Cupid was the god of love, and the son of Venus, the goddess of love. He had arrows that when shot at someone, they would fall in love. Once, he accidentally scratched himself with his own arrow while looking at a woman named Psyche. He fell in love, and took her away and made her promise never to look at his face. But, of course, she did and fell in love with Cupid. They had many adventures before being able to live happily together. He doesn't have a well-known Greek equivalent.
Venus was the mother of Cupid. When she, Juno and Minerva had a fight over a golden apple, they had a mortal named Paris choose who best deserved it. But Paris couldn't decide, and finally chose Venus thanks to a bribe that he would marry Helen. So, he stole Helen from her husband and carried her off to Troy. This started the Trojan War. Her Greek equivalent was Aphrodite.
Diana is the sister of Apollo. She is the goddess of the hunt, and helps woman giving birth. There is a place near North Conway, N.H. called "Daina's Bath." Her Greek equivalent is Artemis.
Mercury was the son of Maia, and the messenger of the gods. He had winged sandals and hat, which enabled him to fly quickly. He was also the god of thieves, and stole some of Apollo's cows and strung a harp with their guts! Mercury was allowed to keep the cows as long as Apollo kept the harp. His Greek equivalent was Hermes.
Menerva was a daughter of Juno. She helped Perseus defeat Medusa, by telling him to look at her reflection in Apollo's shield to cut her head off. He did just that, and gave Medusa's head to Menerva to put on her shield. Her Greek equivalent is Athena.
Neptune carried a 3-pointed trident for a weapon. He was the brother of Pluto and Jupiter, and also the god of earthquakes. It was said that earthquakes was Neptune smashing his trident on the ocean floor. His Greek equivalent is Poseiden.
Pluto ruled the underworld, the place where the dead go. He had a 3-headed dog named Cerberus, who would make sure everyone that passed was actually dead. Pluto was the brother of Jupiter and Neptune. His Greek equivalent is Hades.
Vulcan forged Jupiter's lightning bolts. Once, he made Jupiter angry and was thrown out of heaven, and when he landed ending up breaking both his legs. His Greek equivalent is Hephaestus.