|[General Info] [History]|
1959-Richard Feynman gives a speech about molecular machines building with atomic precision (to read the speech, which was entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” follow this link: http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html)
1974-Taniguchi uses the phrase “nanotechnology” in paper on an ion-sputter machine (His article was called “On the Basic Concept of Nanotechnology”)
1977-Molecular nanotechnology concept originated by Drexler at MIT. K. Eric Drexler is an American engineer known for his work in molecular nanotechnology. In 1979, he published a paper dealing with molecular nanotechnology. Then, in 1986 he wrote the book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. He also coined the phrase “grey goo” which refers to an end-of-the-world scenario in which self-replicating nanobots take over the world.
1985-Discovery of the buckeyball. In 1985, Robert Curl, Harold Kroto (University of Sussex), and Richard Smalley (Rice University) discovered C60 (which they called the buckyball). The buckyball (also called Buckminsterfullerene) was named after Richard Buckminster Fuller, who created the geodesic dome, which resembled buckyballs.
1986-First book published, first organization formed. In 1986, the aforementioned novel Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology was written by K. Eric Drexler and published by Anchor Books. Also, the Foresight Nanotech Institute (the first organization devoted to nanotechnology) was founded.
1989-IBM logo spelled out in individual xenon atoms
1992-First textbook published. In 1992, K. Eric Drexler furthered his ideas by publishing the first textbook on nanotechnology. It was called Nanosystems.
1995-First industry analysis of military applications. Revolution in Military Affairs, a document published in June of 1995 by Hughes Aircraft Company, foresees a “revolution” in military technology that nanotechnology could account for.
2000-President Clinton announces the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative. Since November 1996, several scientists from multiple agencies had been meeting informally to discuss nanotechnology. Then, in 1998, the informal meetings stopped and the cabinet of scientists was called the Interagency Working Group on Nanotechnology (IWGN). In August of 1999, the IWGN completed their first draft of an initiative in nanotechnology. Then, in 2000, the plan was escalated to a federal initiative and labeled the National Nanotechnology Initiative.