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This form of diabetes affects approximately 3 million children and adults. It is an insulin-dependent form of diabetes in which the body in not able to produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows sugar to enter the cells of the body. This lack of insulin production is caused by an immune system attack and destruction of the pancreatic beta cells that usually produces insulin as a result, glucose build up in the bloodstream instead of in the cells, and the body is not able to it. The main cause of this form of diabetes are not known, however Genetics, viruses, and auto-immune complications are known to play a great role in cause of Type 1 Diabetes. Below is the mechanism in which Type 1 Diabetes works: [Human Genome Project] This is a normal cell. Insulin is present and is taken into the cell to facilitate proper glucose uptake and metabolism. In Type I diabetes, insulin is not produced; therefore, there is nothing to signal the cells to take in glucose and metabolize it.
Below is the mechanism in which Type 1 Diabetes works: [Human Genome Project]