Feasibility of Substitution and Energy Differences
What is the greatest impact or concern of the increasing usage of renewable fuels for a vehicle manufacturer?
Michael Warren (heads up the strategic research team for Toyota Latin American operations and manages Toyota renewable fuels research group in the Americas) said: Automotive manufacturer primary concerns are that different renewable fuel blends will require different engines. In Brazil, the E-100 hydrous ethanol flex fuel engine requires a sub-tank, while the US uses an anhydrous E-85 blend that does not require a sub-tank. Although some parts of the engines are similar, they are still two different products, which reduces economies of scale and increases the price for consumers. We would like to see a uniform renewable fuel blend for the hemisphere.
However, there is tremendous variation in the energy efficiency, pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions for each form of bioenergy. It takes approximately a barrel of oil energy to produce 14 barrels of equivalent oil energy from pelletised grass, said Samson, an energy specialist.