Qubits are made up of quantum particles which are: photons, atoms, electrons and ions. These particles need to be controlled in order to create a qubit which cages these particles. Control devices trap these particles and then switch their state. There are four control devices that can be used to create qubits :
Ion traps use magnetic fields to trap ions. At this moment in time, researchers have managed to entangle as many as six ions in a single ion trap. As ion trap technology becomes more established, the number of ions trapped will grow.
Quantum dots are bits of semiconductor(?) material that contain one or a few electrons. Quantum dots are loaded with electrons, and they can be integrated into electronic devices. The most advanced prototypes today work only at extremely low temperatures.
It is difficult to make a pure computer chip. Some atoms embedded in these chips are commonly found as impurities (or flaws). There is usually an unwanted atom of some kind in every few billion atoms. Qubits include 'unwanted' electrons of atoms intentionally into the semiconductor materials. The state of these electrons can then be controlled using lasers or electric fields.
Superconducting circuits are simply electrical circuits which are made of superconducting material. This means that electrons can flow with almost no resistance at extremely low temperatures. Superconducting circuits can form qubits by the flow of current. The current can be made to flow in both directions at once (simultaneously) in the quantum state of superposition. The world's first commercial quantum computer, the Orion, uses superconducting circuits. The advantage is that they use millions of electrons instead of controlling individual particles. Superconducting circuits have to work at extremely low temperatures.
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