The Singapore government allow the cloning of human embryos for certain research
projects giving Singapore having some of the world’s most liberated guidelines for
stem cell research.
1954Embryonic Stem Cell
Scientist John Enders was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for cultivating polio
virus in human embryonic kidney cells.
At the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, Leroy Stevens traces the origin of
a teratocarcinomas inside the scrotum of a mouse to a stem cell. He was the first
person to identify the pluripotent tendencies of these cells.
Researchers is able to isolate a single cell in teratocarcinomas and it can remain
undifferentiated in culture. These cells became known as embryonic carcinoma cells
The first bone marrow transplant (adult stem cells) is carried out in the treatment
of SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency). In the same year, British scientist,
Robert Edward and his student Barry Bavister fertilize the first human egg for in
Stevens transplants mouse primordial germ cells that give rise to teratomas into
adult mice tissues which subsequently differentiate into teratocarcinoma cells.
Beatrice Mintz and Karl Illmensee show that S cells can give rise to organisms,
not just teratomas.