This is a section that aims to study communities that are not dominated by males, ranging from Neolithic civilisations that place emphasis on Goddess worship to minority matrilineal tribes which are able to survive till today. Although anthropologists have agreed largely that there has been no concrete evidence of matriarchies (societies with power placed in the mother), we will still present information on societies which may be female-centred. Our team strives to unearth evidence pointing to more of such civilisations and contrast it to the patriarchy we experience in the world today. Also, we will examine societies that have achieved gender equality.
- Goddess Worship: The Great Goddess
The source of all life, many in the past worshipped the Great Goddess as females were thought to be divine and would be spontaneously pregnant with life. Many civilisations prayed to the Great Goddess. Does this mean then that females dominated the social scene? Perhaps and perhaps not. This debate continues to today.
- Goddess worship in Modern Day
Although many religions that dominate today lean towards patriarchy, Goddess worship still takes on many forms today. Also practised as Wicca, Goddess worship has been said to help many women in finding their inner selves. Goddess spirituality shows how pervasive Goddess worship is, which indicates how it has stuck despite many efforts to wipe it out.
- Societies with Gender Equality: Ancient Sparta
Some societies achieve a certain balance between men and women that places them to be of the same status in society, fulfilling their different roles in satisfaction and enjoying equal rights and freedom. One society in particular that have interested thinkers for a long time is Sparta, where the males go out to war and females are left in charge.
- Societies with Gender Equality: Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was characterised by equal rights and freedoms shared by both men and women. Although there were specific roles the different sexes had to play, they lived in harmony and were free to be independent individuals. Such a social order is indeed interesting to contrast to modern Egypt, bringing out the question of progression.
- Societies with Gender Equality: Minoan Civilisation
The Minoans were said to worship a Great Goddess, as seen from the archaeological evidence. Therefore, many of the women took up more important and administrative roles in such a society, which directly contrasted to early patriarchy.
- Matrilineal Society: Mosuo
It is one of the rare few communities which constitute matrilineal civilisations. They are unique because lineage is maternal, the mother extends her control to most of the family and in some cases property is owned by the female. How does a society like this survive in contrast to the patriarchy? We will attempt to answer questions such as these.