Lacedaemeon, otherwise known as Sparta, is located on the southern part of the Peloponnesus.
Sparta was a founded by the Dorianís. The land of Sparta was taken by the Dorianís after the Mycenaean War. The Messenians were the original inhabitants of the land, but the Spartans took over after the war. The Messenians did not submit to the Spartans rule easily, the revolted against them. This massive revolt almost defeated the Spartans, but they held their reign over the Messenian region. The Spartans were ridiculously outnumbered by the Messenians, so they put into effect a military oligarchy. This oligarchy was the reason that the Spartans were so successful. The Spartans took the Messenians as slaves, or helots. They were the lower class people of the Spartan race, followed by the perioeci. The perioeci were the middle class of Sparta, they were the traders, or merchants of the society. Being of higher social status, the perioeci were allowed much more freedom than the helots. Some people even believe that the perioeci consisted of the Messenian nobles. Above the workers and slaves in Sparta were the Spartiate. The Spartiate were people who descended from the cities first settlers, the Dorians. A member of this class could vote, and was required to serve in the Spartan Army. Sparta was ruled by two kings, but they held little rule over the city. The counsel that is below the kings however, that ruled over the city. Both working together would make the political decisions for Sparta. The counsel was made up of twenty-eight of Spartaís finest men, who were all elder than the age of sixty. Just below this counsel in political status was the assembly of the Spartiate. The assembly was run in a democratic style, and could veto or approve the decisions of the counsel above it. Above all of the citizens and nobles of Sparta were the five members of the Ephorate. The Ephorate practically ran the whole city. They ran the military, and could veto or approve any decision made by the counsel or assembly.