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How They Work
Light emitting diodes illuminate solely by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material, and they must last as long as a standard transistor.
Diodes produce light by having layers of semiconductors. The first having many electrons and another having none. The electrons will move to one layer from the other which produces lights.
The semiconductors most commonly used in L.E.D lights are gallium arsenide, gallium phosphide and gallium arsenide phosphide. The difference in the semiconductors along with the different impurities causes the production of the different color of lights.
Other impurities are added such as zinc, nitrogen, silicon, germanium, and tellurium. This allows the semiconductors to produce electricity. This process is called doping.
L.E.D’s are designed to specifications such as color, brightness and efficiency. Certain doping materials can also be asked for.