# Musictheory, Prior info

### Theory

Before we start with listening to different intervals we have to master the basic theory. For making music you need to have knowledge of notes and scales. In our Western world we have a scale scheme made of 12 notes. This forms an octave. Each octave is built out of the same notes, only higher of lower.

Below this text you see an octave on a piano. The white notes are in line C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C. There are two C's in this row. The only difference is that the second one sounds higher than the first. Even though they are the same note. When you play two of the same notes of an octave they sound the same, only higher or lower. This is caused by the frequence of the sound. The frequence falls exactly in the other ones. That's why you have difference in height but not in consonance.

### Notes

C-D-E-F-G-A-B These are only 7 different notes, where are the other 5? The distance between the notes on the majorscale is like this: Whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half. These are the distances of the majorscale. As you can see on the piano there are also black notes. Between C and D is a note, just like between D and E, F and G, G and A and A and B . You can get these by raising or lowering the note also by half a note. For raising a half note we use the symbole # (pronounce as "sharp"). For lowering a note we use a b (pronounce as "flat"). Between the C and D there's a C# (pronounce as "C sharp") or a Db (pronounce as "D flat")!

### Scales

As you know now a majorscale is built as follows whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half. With this knowledge we can make every scale want. Let's start with C. When we put in the row Whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half, we get:

C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C.
This is your basic for music theory. In this lesson we will explain what you can do with it, and what a fifth is! Let's start with the fifth. A fifth is nothing more than the name of an interval of 3,5 notes. Or the fifth note in the majorscale of the key you wish. The fifth of a C is a G. This differs 3,5 half note from the C and is the fifth note on the majorscale.
Fifths are very important in music. With the knowledge of Fifth and the majorscale we build the fifthcircle. We will explain the fifth circle of you soon. Let's make the majorscale of G.

G-A-B-C-D-E-F#-G. This one has got 1 #, the F#.
When we take the fifth of the G majorscale we get a D. From this D we can also start a majorscale. Then we get this:

D-E-F#-G-A-B-C#-D. This one has got two #, the F# and C#.
Are you getting it? OK well let's continue. The fifth of the D majorscale is an A, Let's make a majorscale of it again!

A-B-C#-D-E-F#-G#-A. This one has got 3 #, the F#, C# and G#.
So every time we move a fifth up we get an extra #! Try it yourself!

### Fifthcircle

Now you know what a fifth is we can start with making the fifthcircle. We just saw that the C majorscale had no #s. And every time we moved the majorscale up a fifth from the C, a new # joined the row. So let's write it all out.

 C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C 0# G-A-B-C-D-E-F#-G 1#, F# D-E-F#-G-A-B-C#-D 2#, F#+C# A-B-C#-D-E-F#-G#-A 3#, F#+C#+G# E-F#-G#-A-B-C#-D#-E 4#, F#+C#+G#+D# B-C#-D#-E-F#-G#-A#-B 5#, F#+C#+G#+D#+A# F#-G#-A#-B-C#-D#-E#-F# 6#, F#+C#+G#+D#+A#+E# C#-D#-E#-F#-G#-A#-B#-C# 7#, F#+C#+G#+D#+A#+E#+G#

You can make these rows yourself with the following three rules:
- A majorscale is built up whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half.
- A fifth is the 5th note on a majorscale or an interval of 3,5 notes.
- Each fifth higher up the majorscale gives an extra #!

TIP - to know which # enters the next row you can lower the note of your choice by a half. You see in the G scale the new # has become an F#, in the D scale the new # has become a C#, in the A scale the new # has become a G# etc.

You could also just simply learn by heart.

### Why is it important to have this knowledge?

In music you always play in a key. This can be C but also E# or Ab. If you do this, it's good to know which notes sound good and which don't. After all you don't want to play out of key! Besides that there is always given on the side of the staff which notes get an # or b. If you count them you should be able to know in which key the sheet music has been written. Then you don't have to think each time which note could fit and which couldn't.

Here are all the intervalls
 interval Place on the majorscale interval on C interval on F perfect first 1st tone C F minor second lowered 2nd tone Db Gb major second 2nd tone D G minor third lowered 3rd tone Eb Ab major third 3rd tone E A perfect fourth 4th tone F Bb augmented fourth raised 4th tone F# B diminished fifth lowered 5th tone Gb Cb perfect fifth 5th tone G C minor sixth lowered 6th tone Ab Db major sixth 6th toon A D minor seventh lowered 7th tone Bb Eb major seventh 7th tone B E perfect eight 8th tone C F

Aslo with listening to intervals it's good to know which notes belong to which scale.

### Exercise

Test your theoretical knowledge here. Note: sometimes a note had a double sign. Example 1: a fifth on C# is G#, a lowered fifth on C# is een Gx (G##) Example2: A fifth on Db is As, a lowered fifth on Db is a Dbb.