A temperate deciduous forest has three distinct layers. Tall trees grow to a height of 50 metres with a canopy that is not as dense as a tropical rainforest. The deciduous leaves are shed during autumn to reduce transpiration. The shrub layer consists of shrubs. The forest floor consists of dense undergrowth of grasses and ferns. This is not surprising as the sparse canopy allows more sunlight to support the undergrowth.
Goh Cheng Leong. (1998). The World's Natural Vegetation. (p. 42-54). Singapore: Federal Publications.