India is also a highly communal state whereby the people and government consist of people from various races and religions. Politicians have often referred to their brand of secularism when in reality they were practicing a form of communal politics. Communalism refers to the community and political parties having involved people of diverse races and religions. The Indian National Congress can also be described to be heterogenic in nature (Gould, 2004). This of course gives rise to many problems for example party members may start to act independently of the party because of the diverse nature of the ideologies and political thinking of the members.